Dragon's Fire: The PLA's 2nd Artillery Corps(1)

龙之烈火:中国人民解放军第二炮兵

Date:2013-10-26 Source:环球网博客 By:无定河边骨

INTRODUCTION

简介

China possesses one of the largest land-based missile forces in the world. While intercontinental parity with the US or the USSR was never one of the goals of the PLA during the Cold War, a rapidly modernizing 2nd Artillery Corps is becoming a far more viable international deterrent force in the current world. Capable of inundating the region surrounding China with hundreds, if not thousands, of conventional and nuclear armed missiles, the PLA's 2nd Artillery Corps deserves credit and recognition as one of the most devastating military branches found in any military worldwide.

中国是世界上陆基导弹数量最多的国家之一。尽管在冷战期间中国人民解放军从来没有把自己与美国或者是苏联相提并论做为目标,但其快速现代化中的第二炮兵正在成为当今世界国际间的一支日趋成熟的威慑力量。装备了即便是没有上千枚也有数百枚可携带常规及核弹头导弹、足以将其周边国家扫荡一空的中国人民解放军第二炮兵,是一支值得信任的部队,并且也被认为是世界上所有军事组织当中最具有毁灭性的武装力量之一。

CHINA'S MISSILE FORCE

中国的导弹部队

The Chinese land-based ballistic and cruise missile force consists of 38 operational missile units spread throughout the nation. The force is heavily oriented towards mobile short and theater range systems, with only eight facilities supporting ICBMs. The locations of the PLA's operational missile units can be seen in the image below:

中国的陆基弹道导弹和巡航导弹部队由38个分布在全国各地的现役导弹部队组成。二炮部队当中只有8个单位具备了发射洲际弹道导弹的能力,是一个重点趋向战区级短程机动的作战系统。中国人民解放军现役导弹部队的分布如下图所示(注:点击看大图,下同,不再提示) 

 

GENERAL ARRANGEMENT

整体布局

The 2nd Artillery Corps of the People's Liberation Army controls China's land-based missile forces. The 2nd AC is responsible for both ballistic and cruise missiles, with varying ranges and differing payloads. With the introduction of new conventionally armed ballistic missiles and the DH-10 GLCM, the 2nd AC should not merely be considered a nuclear missile force.

中国人民解放军第二炮兵控制着中国的陆基导弹力量。第二炮兵同时负责不同射程\各种弹头的弹道导弹和巡航导弹。随着新型常规弹头的弹道导弹和东海-10型陆射巡航导弹的出现,第二炮兵不能只被看成是一支核导弹部队。

The 2nd Artillery Corps headquarters is located north of Beijing, directly south of the 2nd AC's research and development complex, as seen in the image below. An alternate HQ is likely found in the hardened underground launch control facility found underneath Yuquanshan Mountain to the west.

第二炮兵司令部位于北京的北部,即第二炮兵研究院的正南方向,如下图所示。在其以西方向的玉泉山底下可能还有一个坚固的带地下发射控制设施的备用司令部。

2nd Artillery Corps missile units are organized into what the PLA refers to as "bases". There are six bases, each located in a different geographical area. Described in the terms used by the Russian military, these bases are analogous to Russia's Missile Armies. Each base has numerous subordinate missile brigades, with each brigade maintaining one or more garrisons, various underground facilities (UGFs), rail transfer points, and field launch positions.

第二炮兵的导弹部队按照中国人民解放军所谓的“基地”进行组织。全国共有6个基地,每一个都分布在不同的地理区域。如果使用俄罗斯军方的术语进行描述,这些基地相当于俄罗斯的“导弹军”。每个基地下辖多个导弹旅,每个导弹旅编有一支以上的守备部队,若干处地下设施,铁路转运点,以及野外发射阵地等。

Missile garrisons are not difficult to identify once their location can be narrowed to a certain geographical area. These facilities will typically contain administrative and support infrastructure for assigned personnel, and various garages for housing missile TELs and support equipment. Garrisons supporting field deployable systems such as the DF-21 or DF-31 will typically possess high-bay garages or other similar structures used for checkout of system components.

一旦地理范围可以被缩小到一定的程度,导弹部队的具体位置就不难找到。其标准的营房设施包括行政楼和相关人员的生活区,以及存放导弹运输发射车和配套装备的车库。装备了DF-21或者DF-31这种可以野外展开系统的部队,标准情况下还会配备高棚车库或者其它类似的建筑以便对系统组件进行检查。

Rail transfer points are not typically able to be identified with any certainty unless missile equipment is visible at the railyard. However, the likely rail transfer points are those railyards in closest proximity via roadway or connecting railspur to the missile garrisons. Ergo, these facilities have been marked as the likely rail transfer points.

铁路转运点通常很难被确定地找到,除非正好在站台上看到导弹装备。但是,沿公路最为接近的铁路站台和连接到导弹部队的铁路支线都有可能是铁路转运点。因此,这些地方也已经被标示为可能的铁路转运点。

Identifying field launch sites for the 2nd AC's missile force can be a difficult proposition, and there are likely hundreds of such locations as yet unlocated. Careful analysis can be used to identify likely locations, however. The majority of these positions will contain a hardened concrete pad where the associated missile will be erected for launch. Certain missile systems will typically have very similar or even identical launch positions. Usually, it appears that most units within a given base will adopt a similar launch site design for a given missile type, although this is not uniform.

确认第二炮兵导弹部队的野外发射阵地会是一件很困难的事情,可能还有数以百计的野外发射阵地还没有被发现。但是,细致的分析可以帮助确定可能的位置。 这些发射阵地中的大多数都有一个坚固的水泥平台,导弹可以在上面起竖发射。某些导弹系统通常会具有非常相似的甚至是同样的发射阵地。通常,某个基地的大多数部队会为某种导弹使用设计上类似的发射阵地,但也并不是总是如此。

Typical launch site dimensions for common systems are as follows:

常见的导弹系统发射阵地的标准尺寸如下:

-DF-11: 15 meters in length
-DF-15: 26 meters in length
-DF-21: 45 meters in length
 

-东风-11: 15 米长
-东风-15: 26 米长
-东风-21: 45 米长
 

As a comparison, consider the following image. DF-21 launch positions from the 51st and 56th Bases are depicted. Note the similarity to the Datong and Delingha sites. The Huanglong and Liuqingkao examples depict identical dimensions but different, more concealed configurations. Such concealment efforts can make launch sites difficult to identify without considerable examination and are often employed by units in areas which are more likely to be potentially engaged.

做为对比,请参见下图。51基地和56基地东风-21的发射阵地如图所示。请注意大通发射阵地与德令哈发射阵地的相似程度。黄龙发射阵地和Liuqingkao(注:没有找到中文地名,根据地标位置应该在祁连县)发射阵地的尺寸相同,但外观不同,更多的轮廓进行了隐藏。这种隐藏的效果可以使得发射阵地在没有进行非常仔细的检查时更难以被发现,导弹部队经常会对预定的发射阵地进行这样的隐蔽。

Knowing the dimensions or configuration of a given launch site for a specific missile type allows analysts to determine which sites in a mixed garrison are employed by which missile systems. Shangrao's 815th Brigade, for example, employs both the DF-11 and DF-15. Given that both missiles utilize dimensionally different launch positions due to the different size of the launch vehicles, an examination of the launch sites near Shangrao will provide an indication of which sites will be used by which missile system. Once this is determined, a more accurate assessment of the strength of the unit may also be made. These are standard practices when analyzing missile units through overhead imagery.

知道了某种导弹型号指定发射阵地的尺寸和外形,分析人员就可以确定一支导弹部队将在哪个阵地使用哪种导弹系统。 例如,上饶的815旅同时装备了东风-11和东风-15。在已知两种导弹因为发射车的尺寸不同而需要使用不同大小的发射阵地的前提下,对上饶附近发射阵地的排查就可以得出哪个发射阵地将被哪种导弹系统所使用的信息。一旦确定了这一信息,关于这支部队作战能力更为准确的评定就可以水到渠成。这也是使用过顶卫星照片对导弹部队进行分析的标准方法。

Nearly every missile brigade is located in close proximity to one or more hardened UGFs. It is thought that these facilities may provide staging areas for missile systems which have left garrison. Alternatively, they could provide storage for missiles and/or warheads, as these are not likely to be kept on TELs in-garrison indefinitely. These facilities may also serve a purpose unrelated to the 2nd Artillery Corps, but are included nonetheless as their true purpose cannot be accurately determined. It is known that UGFs support aspects of the 2nd Artillery Corps, and the included facilities represent the most likely locations operating in support of nearby missile units.

几乎每一个导弹旅都位于距离一个或者多个坚固地下工事相当近的范围内。有种说法是这些工事可能用来暂时存放从导弹部队替换下来的导弹系统。或者,它们也可以用来存放导弹和/或弹头,因为这些东西不像是可以在导弹部队的运输发射车里无限期存放的。这些工事的用途也可能与第二炮兵毫无关系,但即便是这样它们的真正用途也无法得出准确的判定。众所周知地下工事可以为第二炮兵提供支援,并且这些工事都出现在了最有可能为附近的导弹部队提供支援的地方。

For a representative brigade layout, consider again the 815th Brigade at Shangrao. The following image depicts the locations of the garrison, three identified UGFs, and twelve identified launch sites for the assigned DF-11 and DF-15 missiles. Note the relatively linear progression from garrison to UGF to launch site. A TEL could leave the garrison during hostilities and travel to a UGF for either arming or to await a launch order. Once ordered, the TEL could then proceed to a launch point, all with a minimum of exposure.

对于一个导弹旅具有代表性的分布,我们再一次以上饶的815旅做为例子。下图展示了该旅守备部队、三个已知地下工事、以及12个东风-11和东风-15型导弹已知发射阵地的位置。请注意图中从导弹部队到地下工事再到发射阵地的连续线性分布。一台运输发射车可以在战争状态下离开导弹部队进入地下工事进行武装或者等候发射指令。一旦接到指令,这台运输发射车就会接着进入发射阵地,整个过程的暴露时间非常之短。

The icons used above are used throughout this article and are present in the associated downloadable file. The only alteration is that ICBM units are marked on the images of each Base's associated sites with blue flags instead of red flags. This allows the reader to differentiate between theater and intercontinental assets with ease.

上图中使用的图标将在本文及可下载的相关地标文件中继续使用。唯一不同的的地方在于各个基地洲际弹道导弹部队的相关发射阵地将在图上以蓝色旗替换红色旗。这样可以让读者方便地区分战区导弹与洲际导弹。

51ST BASE

51基地

The 51st Base consists of six missile units in northeastern China. These units are as follows:

51基地位于中国北部,由6支导弹部队组成。这些部队的情况如下:

-806th Brigade, DF-21, Huanglong/Hancheng
-810th Brigade, DF-3A and DF-21, Dengshahe
-816th Brigade, DF-15, Tonghua
-822nd Brigade, DF-21, Laiwu
-U/I Brigade, U/I missile, Fengrun
-U/I Brigade, U/I missile, Jingyu
 

-806旅,东风-21,黄龙/韩城
-810旅,东风-3A 和东风-21,登沙河
-816旅,东风-15,通化
-822旅,东风-21,莱芜
-(未知)旅,(未知),丰润
-(未知)旅,(未知),靖宇
 

The locations of these units can be seen in the following image:

上述部队的位置如下图所示: 

Some sources claim that the 816th Brigade is equipped with the DF-21.

有消息声称816旅装备了东风-21。

52ND BASE

52基地

The 52nd Base consists of twelve missile units in southeastern China. These units are as follows:

52基地由位于中国东南部的12支导弹部队组成。这些部队的情况如下:

-807th and 811th Brigades, DF-3A and DF-15, Lianxiwang/Jingdezhen
-815th Brigade, DF-15C, Leping
-815th Brigade, DF-11 and DF-15, Shangrao
-815th Brigade, DF-15, Xindian
-817th Brigade, DF-11A, Yong An
-818th Brigade, DF-15, Meizhou
-819th Brigade, DF-15, Gangzhou
-820th Brigade, DF-15, Jinhua
-U/I Brigade, DF-11 and DF-15, Jiangshan
-U/I Brigade, DF-15, Nanping
-U/I Brigade, DF-11A, Xianyou
-U/I Brigade, U/I missile, Ningbo
 

-807旅和811旅,东风-3A和东风-15, Lianxiwang/景德镇
-815旅,东风-15C,乐平
-815旅,东风-11 and DF-15,上饶
-815旅,东风-15, Xindian
-817旅,东风-11A, 永安
-818旅,东风-15,梅州
-819旅,东风-15,赣州
-820旅,东风-15,金华
-(未知)旅,东风-11和东风-15,江山
-(未知)旅,东风-15,南平
-(未知)旅,东风-11A,仙游
-(未知)旅,(未知),宁波
 

The locations of these units can be seen in the following image:

上述部队的位置如下图所示:

 

The 807th Brigade, reportedly located at Chizhou, is likely co-located with the 811th Brigade at Lianxiwang/Jingdezhen. DF-3A missiles associated with these units may have been replaced by DF-21s, according to some sources.

807旅据称位于池州,很可能与位于Lianxiwang/景德镇的811旅驻扎在同一地区。据称,这两支部队装备的东风-3A导弹可能已经被东风-21导弹替换。

53RD BASE

53基地

The 53rd Base consists of four missile units in southern China. These units are as follows:

53基地由中国南部的4支导弹部队组成。这些部队的情况如下:

-802nd Brigade, DF-21, Jianshui
-802nd Brigade, DF-21, Kunming
-808th Brigade, DF-21, Chuxiong
-821st Brigade, DH-10, Luorong
 

-802旅,东风-21, 建水
-802旅,东风-21, 昆明
-808旅,东风-21, 楚雄
-821旅,DH-10, 雒容
 

The locations of these units can be seen in the following image:

上述部队的位置如下图所示:

54TH BASE

54基地

The 54th Base consists of six missile units in eastern China. These units are as follows:

54基地由中国东部的6支导弹部队组成。这些部队的情况如下:

-801st Brigade, DF-5A, Lushi
-804th Brigade, DF-5A, Luoning/Luoyang
-813th Brigade, DF-31, Nanyang
-U/I Brigade, DF-4, Sundian
-U/I Brigade, DF-31, Xixia
-U/I Brigade, U/I missile, Sanmenxia
 

-801旅,东风-5A, 卢氏
-804旅,东风-5A, 洛宁/洛阳
-813旅,东风-31, 南阳
-(未知),东风-4,上店(?)
-(未知),东风-31, 西峡
-(未知),(未知), 三门峡
 

The locations of these units can be seen in the following image:

上述部队的位置如下图所示:

Launch sites located near Xixia,once thought to servethe 813th Brigade at Nanyang, may support a separate DF-31 or DF-31A unit. Garrison facilities have not been identified, but the different launch site style. may be indicative of a separate unit.

位于西峡附近的发射阵地,曾经被认为是南阳813旅的,该阵地可以分别支持装备东风-31或者是东风-31A的部队。使用这一阵地的导弹部队和配套设施还没有找到,但其风格独特的发射阵地可能暗示着一支新的导弹部队的存在。

55TH BASE

55基地

The 55th Base consists of two missile units in southern China. These units are as follows:

55基地由中国南部的两支导弹部队组成。这些部队的情况如下:

-803rd and 814th Brigades, DF-5A, Jingxian
-805th Brigade, DF-4, Tongdao
 

-803旅和814旅,东风-5A,靖州
-805旅,东风-4, 通道
 

The locations of these units can be seen in the following image:

上述部队的位置如下图所示:

The 803rd and 814th Brigades are both found in close proximity and may share some of the garrison and support facilities located nearby. Dongkou, often claimed to be home to the 55th Base's 824th Brigade, is in actuality a training facility and is not included as part of the 55th Base.

803旅和814旅同时出现在了非常靠近的位置并且可能共用一些附近的警卫力量及支援设施。洞口经常被认为是55基地824旅的所在地,准确地说它只是一个训练基地并且并不归属于55基地。

56TH BASE

56基地

The 56th Base consists of eight missile units in northern China. These units are as follows:

56基地由中国北部的8支导弹部队组成。这些部队的情况如下:

-809th Brigade, DF-21, Datong
-812th Brigade, DF-31A, Beidao/Tawanli
-823rd Brigade, DF-21, Korla
-U/I Brigade, DF-11 and DF-15, Da Qaidam
-U/I Brigade, DF-4, DF-11, DF-15, DF-21, and DF-31, Delingha
-U/I Brigade, DF-21, Liuqingkou
-U/I Brigade, DF-11 and DF-15, Mahai
-U/I Brigade, DF-21 and DF-31, Xining
 

-809旅,东风-21,大通
-812旅,东风-31A, 北道/Tawanli
-823旅,东风-21, 库尔勒
-(未知),东风-11和 东风-15, 大柴旦
-(未知),东风-4, 东风-11, 东风-15, 东风-21,和 东风-31, 德令哈
-(未知),东风-21, Liuqingkou
-(未知),东风-11和 东风-15, 马海
-(未知),东风-21和 东风-31, 西宁
 

The locations of these units can be seen in the following image:

上述部队的位置如下图所示: 

The Delingha brigade is often referred to as a training unit. This may be the case, but it is included here as it is far more expansive than typical ballistic missile training fields. It is likely home to operational units, even if the facilities are also employed for training purposes. The 812th Brigade is often erroneously referred to as being based at Tianshui when in actuality the main garrison facilities are located east of Tianshui at Beidao.

德令哈旅经常被认为是一支训练部队。这可能是实情,但是它周围的东西表明它的投入远远超出了一个标准的弹道导弹训练基地。它很有可能是一支作战部队的所在地,即它的配套设施同时用于训练目的。812旅经常被错误认为是驻扎在天水,但实际上该旅主要的驻地位于天水以东的北道。

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