PL-12 air-to-air missile

中国PL-12空对空导弹

Date:2022-01-29 Source:wiki By:Globalmil Viewed:


The PL-12 (PiLi-12, 霹雳-12), also designated SD-10 (ShanDian-10, 闪电-10), is a radar-guided air-to-air missile developed by China's Luoyang Electro-Optical Technology Development Center. PL-12 is in service with the People's Liberation Army Air Force (PLAAF).
PL-12(PiLi-12,霹雳-12),又名SD-10(ShanDian-10,闪电-10),是中国洛阳光电技术发展中心研制的一种雷达制导空空导弹。PL-12 在中国人民解放军空军 (PLAAF) 服役。

 
Development history
发展历程
 
The PL-12 active-radar BVR air-to-air missile became the highest priority air-to-air weapons programme for China's military industry during 2002, and supplanted several previous developmental projects (such as the PL-10 and PL-11) in terms of effort and importance. It provides the People's Liberation Army Air Force with a sophisticated, domestic airborne weapon on par with mainstream Western Airforces around the world. It will equip the mainstream of future modern Chinese fighters, and current compatible fighters.
PL-12主动雷达超视距空对空导弹在2002年成为中国军事工业最优先的空对空武器项目,并在努力和重要性上取代了之前的几个开发项目(如PL-10和PL-11)。它为中国人民解放军空军提供了一种先进的国产机载武器,与世界各地的主流西方空军不相上下。 它将装备未来现代中国战机的主流,以及当前兼容的战机。
 
The PL-12 is listed as part of CATIC's current 'Thunder-Lightning' family of air-to-air missiles, that includes the PL-5E, PL- 9C and TY-90 systems (all developed by the Luoyang Electro-Optical Technology Development Center). The chief designer of PL-12 is Fan Huitao (樊会涛) of AVIC I. Development of PL-12 was once led by Dong Bingyin, former chief designer of PL-12 who died in 2000.
PL-12被列为中航工业当前“雷电”系列空对空导弹的一部分,包括PL-5E、PL-9C和TY-90系统(均由洛阳光电技术开发中心开发)。PL-12的总设计师是中国航空工业第一集团(AVIC I)樊会涛(Fan Huitao) 。PL-12的开发曾由原PL-12总设计师董秉印(Dong Bingyin)领导,董秉印于2000年去世。
 
Prior to the emergence of the PL-12, China's active radar seeker AAM development programme was sometimes identified as the 'AMR-1'. During Air Show China 1996, held during November in Zhuhai, the China Leihua Electronic Technology Research Institute/No 607 Research Institute exhibited a newly developed active radar seeker, the AMR-1. This seeker was, in turn, believed to have been applied to a new air- to-air missile design, derived from the LY-60 surface-to-air missile, and dubbed the 'PL-12'. This active radar missile, and the earlier semi-active radar homing PL-11, seemed to have a common design heritage with the Italian Aspide missile, supplied to China during the late 1980s. The status of the PL-11 and 'LY-60/PL-12' development programmes is unclear, but sources within CATIC say these earlier programmes have all been abandoned in favor of the PL-12.
在PL-12出现之前,中国的主动雷达导引头空对空导弹(AAM)开发计划有时被称为“AMR-1”。在1996年11月于珠海举行的中国航展期间,中国雷华电子技术研究所/第607研究所展出了新开发的有源雷达导引头AMR-1。反过来,这种导引头被认为已应用于一种新的空对空导弹设计,该设计源自LY-60地对空导弹,并被称为“PL-12”。这种主动雷达导弹,以及早期的半主动雷达制导 PL-11,似乎与1980年后期供应给中国的意大利阿斯皮德导弹具有共同的设计传统。PL-11和“LY-60/PL-12”开发计划的状态尚不清楚,但中国航空技术进出口公司( CATIC)内部消息人士称,这些早期的计划都已被放弃,转而支持PL-12。
 
The existence of the PL-12 programme was acknowledged by Chinese officials for the first time in early 2002 (the first pictures of the new missile appeared from Chinese sources during 2001). According to CATIC sources the missile has a range of 70 km.[7] Earlier speculation around the AMR-1/LY-60 programme suggested that a ramjet engine was being developed for it, and such a powerplant would allow a missile to be effective at such long ranges.
中国官员在2002年初首次承认了PL-12计划的存在(新导弹的第一张照片出现在2001年的中国来源)。根据中航工业公司的消息来源,该导弹的射程为70公里。早些时候关于AMR-1/LY-60项目的猜测表明,正在为其开发冲压发动机,这样的动力装置将使导弹能够在如此长的射程内有效。
 
Description
描述
 
The new PL-12 active guided air-launched anti-aircraft missile uses the radar and data link from Russia's very capable Vympel R-77,combined with a Chinese missile motor. Some sources claim the resulting combination has a greater range than the Russian missile, and a fire-and-forget active guidance (from R-77) capability comparable to the modern U.S. AIM-120 AMRAAM.
新型PL-12主动制导空射防空导弹使用俄罗斯能力强大的Vympel R-77的雷达和数据链路,并结合中国的导弹发动机。一些消息来源称,这种组合的射程比俄罗斯的导弹大,而且发射后不管主动制导(来自R-77)的能力与美国现代的AIM-120 AMRAAM相当。
 
The PL-12 is outwardly very similar to the US-designed AIM-120 AMRAAM. The two share a comparable aerodynamic configuration, although the PL-12 is a little longer, wider and heavier than the AMRAAM. The PL-12 has four rear-mounted control fins that each have a very distinctive notch cut into their base. These fins are longer and more prominent than those of the AMRAAM and are cropped at an angle (rather than in line with the missile body). Four larger triangular fins are fixed to the midsection of the missile. Internally, the leading edge of the centrebody fins is in line with the start of the missile's rocket motor. That motor is a variable-thrust solid rocket booster, that offers two levels of motive power for different sections of the flight envelope.
PL-12在外观上与美国设计的AIM-120 AMRAAM非常相似。尽管PL-12比AMRAAM更长、更宽、更重,但两者具有可比的空气动力学配置。PL-12有四个后置控制鳍,每个控制鳍的底部都有一个非常独特的切口。这些尾翼比AMRAAM的更长、更突出,并且以一定角度裁剪(而不是与导弹体对齐)。四个较大的三角形鳍固定在导弹的中部。在内部,中心体尾翼的前缘与导弹火箭发动机的起点一致。该发动机是一种可变推力固体火箭助推器,可为飞行包线的不同部分提供两个级别的动力。
 
CATIC is known to be developing X-band and Ku-band active radar seekers, which may be intended for the PL-12. However the latest reports confirm that China has been co-operating closely with Russia's AGAT Research Institute, based in Moscow, and that AGAT is the source of the PL-12's essential active seeker. This joint development effort (perhaps with the name 'Project 129') has reportedly seen the supply of AGAT's 9B-1348 active-radar seeker (developed for the Vympel R-77, AA-12 'Adder') to China for integration with the Chinese-developed missile. Alternatively, technology from AGAT's 9B-1103M seeker family may be offered to China. Russia is also the source for the missile's inertial navigation system and datalink.
众所周知,中航工业正在开发X波段和Ku波段有源雷达导引头,可能用于PL-12。然而,最新的报道证实,中国一直在与位于莫斯科的俄罗斯"玛瑙"(AGAT)设计局密切合作,"玛瑙"(AGAT)设计局是PL-12必不可少的主动寻的器的来源。据报道,这项联合开发工作(可能名为“项目129”)向中国供应了"玛瑙"(AGAT)设计局的9B-1348主动雷达导引头(为Vympel R-77、AA-12“加法器”开发),以便与中国开发的导弹集成。或者,"玛瑙"(AGAT)设计局9B-1103M探索者系列的技术可能会提供给中国。俄罗斯也是该导弹惯性导航系统和数据链的来源。
 
The PL-12 has four engagement modes. To take the greatest advantage of its maximum range it will use a mix of command guidance (via a datalink) plus its own inertial guidance before entering the active radar terminal guidance phase. The missile can also be launched to a pre-selected point, using its strap-down inertial system, before switching on its own seeker for a terminal search. Over short ranges the missile can be launched in a 'fire-and-forget' mode using its own active seeker from the outset. Finally, the PL-12 has a 'home-on-jam' mode that allows it to passively track and engage an emitting target, without ever using its own active radar or a radar from the launch aircraft. This capability is the foundation on which the capability of anti-radiation missile is developed. The seeker is connected to a digital flight control system that uses signal processing techniques to track a target. The missile's warhead is linked to a laser proximity fuse.
PL-12有四种交战模式。为了最大限度地利用其最大射程,在进入主动雷达末制导阶段之前,它将混合使用命令制导(通过数据链)和自身惯性制导。该导弹还可以使用其捷联惯性系统发射到预先选定的点,然后打开自己的导引头进行终端搜索。在短距离内,导弹可以从一开始就使用自己的主动导引头以“发射后不管”模式发射。最后,PL-12有一个“干扰自动归航”(home-on-jam)模式,允许它被动跟踪和攻击发射目标,而无需使用自己的主动雷达或来自发射飞机的雷达。这种能力是研制反辐射导弹能力的基础。导引头与数字飞行控制系统相连,该系统使用信号处理技术跟踪目标。该导弹的弹头与激光近炸引信相连。
 
The PL-12 is claimed to have an operational ceiling of at least 21 km, with a maximum effective range of 70 km and a minimum engagement range of 1,000 m. The missile has a 38+ g manoeuvering limit and, according to CATIC, it has been tested for a 100-hour captive 'live flight' life. According to Chinese claims, PL-12 is more capable than the American AIM-120 A/B, but slightly inferior than the AIM-120C.
据称,PL-12的作战上限至少为21公里,最大有效射程为70公里,最小交战射程为1,000米。该导弹的机动极限为38+G以上,据 中航工业公司称,该导弹已经过100小时的“实弹飞行”寿命测试。根据中国的说法,PL-12比美国的AIM-120A/B更强大,但比 AIM-120C稍逊一筹。
 
The PL-12 can be deployed by the Chengdu J-10, Shenyang J-8F, Shenyang J-11 and JF-17 combat aircraft.
PL-12可由成都J-10、沈阳J-8F、沈阳J-11和JF-17战斗机部署。
 
Three new variants of the PL-12 have been unveiled with newer ones in development:
PL-12的三个新型号已经公开,新型号正在开发中:
 
PL-12B: with improved guidance system
PL-12C: with foldable tailfins for internal carriage on 5th-generation fighters
PL-12D: with a belly inlet and ramjet engine for even longer range attacks, similar to the PL-21
PL-12B:带有改进的制导系统
PL-12C:带有可折叠尾翼,用于第五代战斗机的内部携带
PL-12D:与 PL-21 类似,带有腹部进气口和冲压式喷气发动机,可实现更远距离的攻击
 
Surface-launched version
舰载发射版本
 
Like the AIM-120 AMRAAM, PL-12 is also used as SAM, and tests have already successfully completed as the possible replacement of LY-60, but such system has not entered service because China has already been developing the vertical launched version. The vertical launching system is developed by the Luoyang Optronic Technological Development Center in Henan, and the system is called CCL, short for Concentric Cylindrical Launcher, which is similar to American Mk 48 VLS in appearance, but due to the very limited information publicized, it is difficult to tell if the Chinese VLS is a "cold launch" system or a "hot launch" system like that of American Mk 48 VLS.
与AIM-120 AMRAAM一样,PL-12也被用作SAM,作为LY-60的可能替代品,测试已经成功完成,但此类系统尚未投入使用,因为中国已经在开发垂直发射型号。垂直发射系统由河南洛阳光电技术开发中心开发,该系统被称为CCL,是同心圆柱形发射器的缩写,外观类似于美国Mk 48 VLS,但由于公开的信息非常有限,很难判断中国的VLS是像美国Mk 48 VLS那样的“冷发射”系统还是“热发射”系统。
 
LD-10
 
LD-10 (LD = Lei Dian, 雷电 in Chinese, meaning thunder and lighting) is an anti-radiation missile developed from PL-12/SD-10, first revealed to public in the 9th Zhuhai Airshow held in November 2012. The missile is smaller than the anti-radiation version of YJ-91, but like YJ-91, it's also supersonic. LD-10 is similar to AGM-88 HARM in terms of usage, but its size and range are less, weight around the same as PL-12 and range is greater than 60 km.
LD-10(LD=Lei Dian,雷电 在中文中,这是一种由PL-12/SD-10研发的反辐射导弹,在2012年11月举行的第九届珠海航展上首次公开。该导弹比YJ-91的反辐射版本小,但和YJ-91一样,它也是超音速的。LD-10在使用上与AGM-88 HARM相似,但其尺寸和射程较小,重量与PL-12差不多,射程大于60公里。

 
LS-II ADS
 
At the 7th Zhuhai Airshow held at the end of 2008, a mobile air defense system (ADS) based on PL-12/SD-10 were revealed to the public. The weapon system is designated as LS-II ADS, with LS stands for Lie Shou, meaning Hunter in Chinese (猎手). The launching system does not incorporate VLS technology, but is very similar to Raytheon SL-AMRAAM (Surface Launched - Advanced Air-to-Air Missile).
在2008年底举行的第七届珠海航展上,一种基于PL-12/SD-10的机动防空系统(ADS)向公众展示。 该武器系统被指定为LS-II ADS,LS代表Lie Shou,意思是中文(猎手)。 该发射系统没有采用 VLS 技术,但与雷神 SL-AMRAAM(地面发射 - 先进空对空导弹)非常相似。
 
The launching platform is Dongfeng (东风, East Wind) EQ2050 Iron Armor (Tiejia, 铁甲) or other Chinese High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV), and like SL-AMRAAM, both the short-range IR guided AAM and medium-range AAM are included. The Chinese LS-II ADS launching platform differs from its Raytheon counterpart in that the latter has a total of 6 missiles, while former only has four. LS-II ADS only contains two short-range IR guided AAMs (PL-9) and two medium-range AAMs (PL-12/SD-10), with PL-12/SD-10 missiles mounted in the center, and the PL-9 missiles mounted on the outside. The second pair of medium-range AAMs of Raytheon SL-AMRAAM system outside the short-range IR guided AAMs does not exist on the Chinese LS-II ADS.
发射平台是"东风"(Dongfeng, East Wind)EQ2050"铁甲"(Tiejia,Iron Armor) 或其他中国高机动性多用途轮式车辆(HMMWV),如SL-AMRAAM,包括短程红外制导AAM和中程AAM。中国的LS-II ADS发射平台与雷声公司的发射平台不同,后者共有6枚导弹,而前者只有4枚。LS-II ADS仅包含两个短程红外制导空空导弹(PL-9)和两个中程空空导弹(PL-12/SD-10),PL-12/SD-10导弹安装在中部,PL-9导弹安装在外部。中国LS-II ADS上不存在雷神SL-AMRAAM系统的第二对中程空空导弹,它位于短程红外制导空空导弹之外。
 
In addition to the launching vehicle, LS-II ADS also include two other vehicles, which is also often based on the Dongfeng (东风, East Wind) EQ2050 Iron Armor (Tiejia, 铁甲) or other Chinese High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV), for the purpose to simplify logistics, though chassis of other vehicles are also available. One of the two other vehicle is for power source, and LS-II ADS can be fully functional without it, though on a shorter continuous operation. When engaging targets, PL-9/DK-9 would engage targets at lower altitude while PL-12/SD-10 would engage targets at higher altitude, and multiple missiles can be fired together to simultaneously engage multiple targets.
除了发射车,LS-II ADS还包括另外两辆车,这两辆车通常也是基于"东风"的(Dongfeng, East Wind)EQ2050"铁甲'(Tiejia,Iron Armor) 或其他中国高机动性多用途轮式车辆(HMMWV),以简化后勤,但也可提供其他车辆的底盘。另外两个车辆中的一个用于电源,LS-II ADS可以在没有电源的情况下完全发挥功能,尽管持续运行时间较短。在打击目标时,PL-9/DK-9将打击低空目标,而PL-12/SD-10将打击高空目标,可以同时发射多枚导弹打击多个目标。
 
Another vehicle of LS-II ADS carries a passive-phased array radar for fire control. The new radar is based on the anti-stealth radar shown a year earlier at defense exhibition at Abu Dhabi in 2007, and appears to be a scaled-down version of the former. However, the developer dubbed the radar as Anti-low radar cross section early warning radar, though some capability against stealth target do exist. Electro-optical fire control system is mounted separately on the roof of the driver's cabin of the launching vehicle, and can function independently in the absence of the radar. LS-II ADS is integrated to the larger air defense network via LIN87 data link.
LS-II ADS的另一辆车携带用于火控的无源相控阵雷达。 新雷达基于一年前在 2007 年阿布扎比国防展上展示的反隐身雷达,似乎是前者的缩小版。然而,开发人员将雷达称为反低雷达截面预警雷达,尽管确实存在一些针对隐身目标的能力。 光电火控系统单独安装在发射车驾驶室车顶,可以在没有雷达的情况下独立运行。LS-II ADS通过LIN87数据链路集成到更大的防空网络。
 
Potential export opportunities
潜在的出口机会
 
The Egyptian Air Force has shown interest in the PL-12 as well as the JF-17 Thunder.
Pakistani Air Force has ordered about 200 JF-17 and 600 PL-12.
埃及空军对PL-12和JF-17“雷霆”表现出了兴趣。
巴基斯坦空军订购了大约200架JF-17和 600枚PL-12。
 
Operators
操作人员
 
 People's Republic of China
People's Liberation Army Air Force
People's Liberation Army Navy
 Pakistan
Pakistan Air Force (PAF), 600 ordered.
  中华人民共和国
中国人民解放军空军
中国人民解放军海军
  巴基斯坦
巴基斯坦空军 (PAF),订购了600枚。
 
Specifications
规格
 
Length: 3.85 m (12.63 ft)
Body diameter: 203 mm (8 in)
Wing span: 670 mm
Fin span: 752 mm
Launch weight: 180 kg (396 lb)
Warhead: HE fragmentation
Fuse: Active proximity fuse
Guidance: Inertial mid-course and/or datalink updates, with active radar terminal homing
Propulsion: Solid dual-thrust rocket motor
Maximum Range: 70+ km[1][2] - 100 km
Minimum Range: 1 km
Maximum g-force: > 38 g
Maximum Altitude: 21 km
Maximum Speed: > Mach 4
No Escape Zone (NEZ): 45 km (look-up) or 35 km (look-down) against target with RCS of 3 sq. metres
弹长:3.85米(12.63英尺)
弹体直径:203毫米(8英寸)
前翼展:670毫米
尾翼展:752毫米
发射重量:180千克(396磅)
弹头:HE破片
引信:主动近炸引信
导航:惯性中段和/或数据链更新,主动雷达终端寻的
推进:固体双推力火箭发动机
最大射程:70+公里-100公里
最小射程:1公里
最大过载:>38G
最高高度:21公里
最大速度:>4马赫
不可逃逸区(NEZ):距离目标45公里(仰视)或35公里(俯视),RCS为3平方米

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