Type 81 Assault Rifele

中国81式突击步枪

Date:2010-06-09 Source:internet By:globalmil Viewed:


The Type 81 was the standard infantry rifle in service with the PLA before the end of the 1990s. It was regarded as one of the most successful small arm weapon designs in the PLA’s history.81式是标准步兵步枪在1990年底之前在PLA服役中。它被认为是PLA历史记录中最成功的轻兵器设计之一。

The Type 81 family of 7.62mm infantry assault weapon (assault rifle and squad machine gun) was developed in the late 1970s based on the Type 56 assault rifle (AK-47), but with a longer barrel. The Type 81 replaced the Type 56 to become the standard infantry rifle in the PLA in the late 1980s. The Type 81 was widely used during the Sino-Vietnam border conflicts and the weapon demonstrated excellent performance and reliability. The PLA is currently replacing the Type 81 with the 5.8mm Type 95 (QBZ95) series assault rifle but a significant number of the Type 81 remains in current service.

中国7.62毫米步兵攻击武器(突击步枪和班机枪)的81式系列产品基于56式突击步枪(AK-47)在1970年后期内发展,但是采用一个较长的枪管。81式代替了56式在1980年后期成为PLA的标准步兵步枪。81式在中国广泛地在越南边境冲突期间使用,而且武器展示了优良的性能和可靠性。PLA现在使用5.8毫米95式(QBZ95)代替81式但目前很多的81式仍在服役中。

PROGRAMME

The PLA required an improved 7.62mm infantry assault weapon in the late 1970s to replace its older Type 56 series rifles. The new weapon would serve as a stopgap before the new generation 5.8mm rifle became available. In the Type 81 rifle the PLA demanded an automatic weapon with both high firing accuracy and strong firepower. The weapon needed to be robust and highly reliable, and tolerant to the abuse in the battlefield. The PLA also required that the rifle to be able to fire the standard 7.62 X 39mm ammunitions originally used by the Type 56/AK-47 series. The Type 81 development began in 1979 and the weapon entered batch production in 1983. By the end of the 1980s, most PLA ground troops were equipped with the Type 81 quad weapon family.

计划

PLA在1970年后期必需一种改良的7.62毫米步兵攻击武器代替它较陈旧的56式系列步枪。新的武器会在新一代5.8毫米步枪可得之前被看做暂时服役。在81式步枪中PLA需要一种自动武器具有高射击精度和强大火力两者。武器需要结实和高度可靠,并且在战场能承耐损伤。PLA也需要步枪能够发射标准7.62X39毫米弹药,最初被56式/AK-47系列使用。81式发展在1979年开始,而且武器在1983年进入了批生产。在1980年终之前,大多数的PLA地面军队被装备81式武器系列产品。

The Type 81 was the PLA’s first infantry squad weapon family which comprises the fixed wooden butt Type 81 assault rifle, the metal foldable butt Type 81-I assault rifle, and the heavy barrelled Type 81 squad machine gun. They replaced the older generation 7.62mm Type 56 automatic rifle (AK-47 copy), Type 63/68 automatic rifle, Type 56 semi-automatic rifle, and the Type 56-I squad machine gun in service with the PLA. The Type 81 was first seen action during the 1980s Sino-Vietnam border conflicts, and its excellent performance was highly praised by its users. The rifle was also exported through the state-run NORINCO to Sri Lanka and some African countries.

81式是PLA第一种步兵班武器系列包括固定木枪托81式突击步枪,金属可折叠枪托81-I式突击步枪,还有重枪身81式班机枪。它们代替在PLA服役中较旧的7.62毫米56式自动步枪(仿造AK-47),63/68式自动步枪,56式半自动步枪和56-I式班机枪。81式首先在1980年期间看到用于中国的越南边境冲突,而且它的优良性能被它的使用者非常称赞。步枪也被经由国营的中国北方工业总公司(NORINCO)外销到斯里兰卡和一些非洲国家。

Despite being externally somewhat similar to the Type 56/AK-47, the Type 81 differs to it significantly, with its most easily distinguishable feature being an exposed muzzle part of the barrel, with the foresight moved back. The main purpose for this modification was to be able to fire rifle grenades from the barrel. There is also a significant gap between the trigger guard and the magazine on Type 81 rifles, while on Type 56/AK-47 type the magazine is adjacent to the front of the trigger guard. On Type 81 rifles the obsolete spike-shaped non-detachable bayonet, preferred by the PLA before, was also replaced by the more "modern" detachable knife-bayonet.

尽管外表多少相似56式/AK-47,81式相对较大差异,由于它非常容易区别特点是外露枪口部分枪管,瞄准后移。这一个修改主要的目的要能够从枪身发射枪榴弹。在81式步枪上的板机环和弹匣之间有一个显者的间隙,在56式/AK-47弹匣靠近板机环的前部。在81式步枪舍弃长钉形非-可拆卸刺刀,以前被PLA首选,也被更“现代化”可拆卸短刺刀代替了。

The Type 81 have been serving with the PLA for nearly two decades before it was replaced by the 5.8mm Type 95 (QBZ95) series squad weapon family. The rifle was regarded as one of the most successful small arm weapon designs in the PLA’s history. The rifle was based on the Type 56/AK-47, but with some significant improvements to reduce the recoil and muzzle jump, giving better firing accuracy. The Type 81 rifle also made some changes in its external design to make it more user friendly than the original Type 56/AK-47.

在它被5.8毫米95式(QBZ95)系列班武器系列产品代替之前,81式在PLA将近已经服役二十年之久。步枪被认为在PLA的历史记录中最成功轻武器设计之一。步枪以56式/AK-47为基础,但是采用一些重要的改进减少反撞和枪口跳动,给予比较好的射击精度。81式步枪在外部设计也作了一些方面的改变使它更好使用胜于最初的56式/AK-47。

VARIANTS

Type 81 (7.62mm assault rifle with a fixed butt)
Type 81-I (7.62mm assault rifle with a foldable butt)
Type 81 7.62mm squad machine gun
Type 81S (export variant)
Type 87 5.8mm assault rifle (prototype)
Type 87 5.8mm squad machine gun (prototype) 

改型

81式 (使用一个固定枪托的7.62毫米突击步枪)
81-I式 (使用一个可折叠枪托的7.62毫米突击步枪)
81式 7.62 mm 班机枪
81S式 (外销改型)
87式 5.8 mm 突击步枪 (原型)
87式 5.8 mm 班机枪 (原型)


The Type 81 (below) is the early basic variant 7.62mm assault rifle with a fixed wooden butt. The improved Type 81-I (above) has a foldable butt. Most rifles in service with the PLA is the Type 81-I variant.81式(下面)是使用一个固定木制枪托早期基本型7.62毫米突击步枪。改进的81-I式(上面)有一个可折叠枪托。大多数的步枪在PLA服役中的是81-I改型。


The Type 81 squad machine gun is another member of the Type 81 family of infantry weapons. It shares the 70% of its parts with the Type 81 assault rifle. The squad machine gun variant has a heavier barrel for higher firing range.81式班机枪是步兵武器81式系列产品的另外一个成员。它同81式突击步枪共享70%的零配件。班机枪改型为较远射程有一个较沉重的枪身。

DESIGN

The Type 81 is a gas operated, magazine fed, automatic rifle. It uses a short-stroke gas piston, located above the barrel, and a two-position gas regulator, along with a gas cut-off valve for launching rifle grenades. The gas system, as well as the bolt group with the AK-47 type rotating bolt, is reminiscent of those of Type 63 rifles. Type 81 rifles also retain the bolt hold-open device, which catches the bolt in the open position after the last round has been fired from magazine. The fire selector-safety switch is located at the left side of the receiver, just above the pistol grip, and can be easily operated with the right hand thumb. The late production Type 81S rifles have a separate SKS-type safety switch just behind the trigger. The open sights are marked from 100 to 500 metres, with the front sight being mounted just ahead of the gas block, leaving the front portion of the barrel free for the rifle grenade launcher. Ammunition is fed from Type 56 (Kalashnikov) 30-round magazines, or from 75-round drums intended for the Type 81 light machine gun.

设计

81式是一种气体操作弹匣供弹自动步枪。它使用一个短-冲程气体柱塞,位于枪管上,和一个二位置气体调整器,连同一个气体停气阀用于发射枪榴弹。气体系统和枪机组件使用AK-47型的旋转枪机,令人想起63式步枪。81式步枪也保有枪机保持-开装置,在上一发子弹从弹匣被射击之后捕捉枪机在开着的位置。射击选择-保险位于枪身左侧,正好在手持柄上面,而且能容易地与右手拇指一起操作。以后生产81S式步枪在板机后面仅仅有一个分开的SKS-型保险。缺口式照门从100到500米被作了记号,前面照门被正好安装在导气箍前面,用于步枪枪榴弹发射器保留前部突出枪管。弹药从56式(Kalashnikov)30发弹匣供弹,或为81式轻机枪设计从75发弹鼓。


The Type 81 7.62mm squad machine gun with a 75-round drum (above) and Type 81 7.62mm assault rifle with a special 20-round magazine (below). The weapon was exported to a number of countries in South Asia and Africa through the state-run NORINCO.81式7.62毫米班机枪(下面)使用75发弹鼓(上面)和81式7.62毫米突击步枪使用一个专用20发弹匣(下面)。武器经过国营的中国北方工业总公司(NORINCO)外销到南亚和非洲许多的国家。

SPECIFICATIONS

规格

 
81式(Type 81)
81-I式(Type 81-I)
81式机枪(Type 81 machine gun)
全长(Overall length) 955mm 750mm (折叠枪托,butt folded) 1,004mm
重量(Weight(连同弹匣/弹鼓,with magazine/drum)) 3.50kg 3.40kg 5.15kg
口径(Bore diametre)
7.62mm
子弹(Cartridge)
7.62 X 39mm
有效射程(Effective range) 400m 400m 500m
出膛速度(Muzzle velocity) 750m/s 750m/s 735m/s
射速(Rate of fire (理论,theory)) N/A N/A 720r/m
射速(Rate of fire (持续,sustained)) N/A N/A 120r/min
弹药容量(Cartridge capacity) 30 rounds 30 rounds 75 rounds

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