|Type 81 Assault Rifele
Date:2010-06-09 Source:internet By:globalmil Viewed:
The Type 81 was the standard infantry rifle in service with the PLA before the end of the 1990s. It was regarded as one of the most successful small arm weapon designs in the PLA’s history.81式是标准步兵步枪在1990年底之前在PLA服役中。它被认为是PLA历史记录中最成功的轻兵器设计之一。
The Type 81 family of 7.62mm infantry assault weapon (assault rifle and squad machine gun) was developed in the late 1970s based on the Type 56 assault rifle (AK-47), but with a longer barrel. The Type 81 replaced the Type 56 to become the standard infantry rifle in the PLA in the late 1980s. The Type 81 was widely used during the Sino-Vietnam border conflicts and the weapon demonstrated excellent performance and reliability. The PLA is currently replacing the Type 81 with the 5.8mm Type 95 (QBZ95) series assault rifle but a significant number of the Type 81 remains in current service.
The PLA required an improved 7.62mm infantry assault weapon in the late 1970s to replace its older Type 56 series rifles. The new weapon would serve as a stopgap before the new generation 5.8mm rifle became available. In the Type 81 rifle the PLA demanded an automatic weapon with both high firing accuracy and strong firepower. The weapon needed to be robust and highly reliable, and tolerant to the abuse in the battlefield. The PLA also required that the rifle to be able to fire the standard 7.62 X 39mm ammunitions originally used by the Type 56/AK-47 series. The Type 81 development began in 1979 and the weapon entered batch production in 1983. By the end of the 1980s, most PLA ground troops were equipped with the Type 81 quad weapon family.
The Type 81 was the PLA’s first infantry squad weapon family which comprises the fixed wooden butt Type 81 assault rifle, the metal foldable butt Type 81-I assault rifle, and the heavy barrelled Type 81 squad machine gun. They replaced the older generation 7.62mm Type 56 automatic rifle (AK-47 copy), Type 63/68 automatic rifle, Type 56 semi-automatic rifle, and the Type 56-I squad machine gun in service with the PLA. The Type 81 was first seen action during the 1980s Sino-Vietnam border conflicts, and its excellent performance was highly praised by its users. The rifle was also exported through the state-run NORINCO to Sri Lanka and some African countries.
Despite being externally somewhat similar to the Type 56/AK-47, the Type 81 differs to it significantly, with its most easily distinguishable feature being an exposed muzzle part of the barrel, with the foresight moved back. The main purpose for this modification was to be able to fire rifle grenades from the barrel. There is also a significant gap between the trigger guard and the magazine on Type 81 rifles, while on Type 56/AK-47 type the magazine is adjacent to the front of the trigger guard. On Type 81 rifles the obsolete spike-shaped non-detachable bayonet, preferred by the PLA before, was also replaced by the more "modern" detachable knife-bayonet.
The Type 81 have been serving with the PLA for nearly two decades before it was replaced by the 5.8mm Type 95 (QBZ95) series squad weapon family. The rifle was regarded as one of the most successful small arm weapon designs in the PLA’s history. The rifle was based on the Type 56/AK-47, but with some significant improvements to reduce the recoil and muzzle jump, giving better firing accuracy. The Type 81 rifle also made some changes in its external design to make it more user friendly than the original Type 56/AK-47.
Type 81 (7.62mm assault rifle with a fixed butt)
Type 81-I (7.62mm assault rifle with a foldable butt)
Type 81 7.62mm squad machine gun
Type 81S (export variant)
Type 87 5.8mm assault rifle (prototype)
Type 87 5.8mm squad machine gun (prototype)
81式 7.62 mm 班机枪
87式 5.8 mm 突击步枪 （原型）
87式 5.8 mm 班机枪 （原型）
The Type 81 (below) is the early basic variant 7.62mm assault rifle with a fixed wooden butt. The improved Type 81-I (above) has a foldable butt. Most rifles in service with the PLA is the Type 81-I variant.81式（下面）是使用一个固定木制枪托早期基本型7.62毫米突击步枪。改进的81-I式（上面）有一个可折叠枪托。大多数的步枪在PLA服役中的是81-I改型。
The Type 81 squad machine gun is another member of the Type 81 family of infantry weapons. It shares the 70% of its parts with the Type 81 assault rifle. The squad machine gun variant has a heavier barrel for higher firing range.81式班机枪是步兵武器81式系列产品的另外一个成员。它同81式突击步枪共享70%的零配件。班机枪改型为较远射程有一个较沉重的枪身。
The Type 81 is a gas operated, magazine fed, automatic rifle. It uses a short-stroke gas piston, located above the barrel, and a two-position gas regulator, along with a gas cut-off valve for launching rifle grenades. The gas system, as well as the bolt group with the AK-47 type rotating bolt, is reminiscent of those of Type 63 rifles. Type 81 rifles also retain the bolt hold-open device, which catches the bolt in the open position after the last round has been fired from magazine. The fire selector-safety switch is located at the left side of the receiver, just above the pistol grip, and can be easily operated with the right hand thumb. The late production Type 81S rifles have a separate SKS-type safety switch just behind the trigger. The open sights are marked from 100 to 500 metres, with the front sight being mounted just ahead of the gas block, leaving the front portion of the barrel free for the rifle grenade launcher. Ammunition is fed from Type 56 (Kalashnikov) 30-round magazines, or from 75-round drums intended for the Type 81 light machine gun.
The Type 81 7.62mm squad machine gun with a 75-round drum (above) and Type 81 7.62mm assault rifle with a special 20-round magazine (below). The weapon was exported to a number of countries in South Asia and Africa through the state-run NORINCO.81式7.62毫米班机枪（下面）使用75发弹鼓（上面）和81式7.62毫米突击步枪使用一个专用20发弹匣（下面）。武器经过国营的中国北方工业总公司（NORINCO）外销到南亚和非洲许多的国家。
81式机枪（Type 81 machine gun）
|全长（Overall length）||955mm||750mm （折叠枪托，butt folded）||1,004mm|
7.62 X 39mm
|射速（Rate of fire （理论，theory））||N/A||N/A||720r/m|
|射速（Rate of fire （持续，sustained））||N/A||N/A||120r/min|
|弹药容量（Cartridge capacity）||30 rounds||30 rounds||75 rounds|
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