TYPE 96 MAIN BATTLE TANK

中国96式主战坦克

Date:2017-05-26 Source:Internet By:Globalmil Viewed:


The Type 96 MBT was developed from the NORINCO Type 85 series. It is the final development variant of the Chinese second-generation MBT programme.
96式主战坦克(MBT)从中国北方工业总公司(NORINCO)85式系列发展。它是中国第二代主战坦克(MBT)计划的最后发展型。

The Type 96 is the final development variant of China’s second-generation main battle tank (MBT) programme. The tank was derived from the Type 85 MBT prototype, and is approaching the standard of the third-generation MBTs in certain aspects. Developed and built by China North Industries Group Corporation (NORINCO), the Type 96 is in service with the PLA and with the Pakistani Army. The PLA has reportedly received about 1,500~2,000 Type 96s by the end of 2005, and the production will continue for some years to come.
96式是中国第二代主战坦克(MBT)计划的最后发展型。坦克来源于85式主战坦克(MBT)原型,而且在某些方面接近第三代主战坦克(MBT)标准。由中国北方工业(集团)总公司(NORINCO)发展和制造,96式在PLA和巴基斯坦陆军中服役。在2005年底之前,PLA已经据传闻大约接收到1,500~2,000辆96式,而且生产将会持续数年。


The Type 96 is replacing the ageing Type 59/69 series to become the PLA’s primary MBT, with over 1,500 examples delivered by 2005.
96式正在更换陈旧59/69式系列成为PLA最主要的主战坦克(MBT),在2005年之前超过1,500辆被交付。
 
PROGRAMME
计划
 
China began to develop its second-generation indigenous main battle tank (MBT) in the early 1980s, with two early variants Type 80 and Type 85 being introduced in 1988. While the Type 80 later entered service with the PLA as the Type 88, the Type 85 continued as an experiment research project by the NORINCO. The result of the 1991 Gulf War made the PLA realise that its existing second-generation MBT Type 88 was no match to Western designs. Because of the delay in the Chinese third-generation MBT programme, the PLA was left with no choice but to continue improving the Type 85 design.
中国在1980年早期开始发展它的第二代本国自行生产的主战坦克(MBT),在1988年二种早期型号80式和85式推出。80式稍后进入PLA服役被称为88式,85式被当做中国北方工业总公司(NORINCO)的一项实验研究计划。1991年海湾战争的结果使PLA觉悟它已有的第二代的主战坦克(MBT)88式不能对西方设计的相匹配。因为中国第三代主战坦克(MBT)计划的迟延,PLA没有选择只能继续去改进85式设计。


The Type 85 prototype developed in the mid-1980s. The tank was based on the chassis of the Type 80, but fitted with a new welded turret.
85式原型在1980年中期发展。坦克以80式车底盘为基础,但是安装一个新的焊接炮塔。
 
A radically improved variant of the Type 85 known as Type 85IIM was introduced in the mid-1990s. This variant features a Chinese indigenous 125mm smoothbore main gun, which is fitted with an autoloader copied from the Russian 2A46 design. The tank also has enhanced armour protection, more sophisticated fire-control system, and night vision equipment. The Pakistani Army received several hundred of this variant in the late 1990s. A further improved variant Type 85-III with a 1,000hp diesel engine and explosive reaction armour (ERA) plates was introduced by NORINOC in 1995.
在1990年中期,85式的一种根本地改进型即是85IIM式推出。这一种改型以一门中国自行生产的125毫米滑膛主炮为特点,配备有从俄国2A46设计仿造的自动装弹机。坦克也提高了装甲保护,更复杂的火控系统和夜视装置。巴基斯坦陆军在1990年后期接收到了几百辆这一种改型。在1995年,由NORINOC生产的一种更进一步的改进型85-III式,采用1,000马力发动机和爆炸反应装甲(ERA)块。


The Type 96 is approaching the standard of the third-generation Chinese MBTs such as Type 98 in fire-power and mobility.
96式正在接近第三代中国主战坦克(MBT)的标准火力和机动性,像是98式。
 
The Type 85-III design received its design certificate in 1996, and was officially designated by the PLA as Type 96. The tank entered operational service with the PLA ground forces from 1997. The PLA had reportedly received over 1,500 examples of the Type 96 by 2005. Recent photos released by Chinese state media confirmed that all of the PLA’s elite armoured divisions are now equipped with the Type 96 MBT.
85-III式设计在1996年接收了它的设计证明书,正式地被PLA指定为96式。坦克从1997年进入PLA操作服役。PLA在2005年之据传闻已经接收到超过1,500辆96式。 据中国官方媒体最近相片确认,所有的PLA精锐装甲师,现在装备96式主战坦克(MBT)。


All of the PLA’s elite armoured divisions are now equipped with the Type 96 MBT.
所有PLA的精锐装甲师现在装备96式主战坦克(MBT)。
 
It is somehow unusual for the PLA to receive two MBTs Type 96 and Type 98/99 at the same time. One possible explanation is that the Type 98/99, though exceeding the Type 96 in performance and technology, will only be equipped by s small number of the most elite units due to its high unit price. The Type 96, with its less sophisticated technology and therefore cheaper unit price, will be equipped in significant numbers to replace the ageing Type 56/69 series.
不知何故,不寻常的是PLA同时接收二种主战坦克(MBT)96式和98/99式。一种可能的解释是98/99式,虽然性能和技术超过96式,只将会仅仅装备小数量的最精锐的部队,这主要由于高单位价格。96式,由于它的较少的技术复杂性因此单位价格较低,将会被大量装备代替除旧56/69式系列。
 
VARIANTS
改型

命名(Designations)
说明(Description)
85式 原型。80式底盘加上一个焊接炮塔。105毫米滑膛炮-Prototype. Type 80 chassis plus a welded turret. 105mm rifled main gun
85-I式

改进型采用主炮热护套管
-Improved variant with heat sleeve for main gun

85-II式 改进型采用改进的火控系统-Improved variant with modified fire-control
85-IIM式 采用自动装弹机的125毫米滑膛炮的第一种型号。对巴基斯坦外销。-First version with the auto-loading 125mm smoothbore gun. Export to Pakistan
85IIAP式 为巴基斯坦的简化85IIM式改型-Simplified variant of the Type 85IIM for Pakistan
85-III式 升级采用一台1,000马力柴油发动机。安装新的爆炸反应装甲(ERA)。只不过原型没有生产-Upgraded with a 1,000hp diesel engine. New explosive reactive armour installed. Prototype only with no production
96式 85-III 式国内型,在PLA服役中。-Domestic version of the Type 85-III in use with PLA
 
DESIGN
设计
 
The Type 96 uses a conventional layout with three crewmembers. The driver compartment is located at the front (left-side); the turret is mounted in the middle and the engine compartment in the rear. Suspension is of the conventional torsion bar type and there are six rubber-tyred roadwheels on each side, with the drive sprocket at the rear. The turret and hull are of all-welded steel armour construction.
96式采用常规布局采用三人成员组。驾驶员舱位于前部 (左侧);炮塔安装在中部和发动机安装在后部。悬挂采用传统扭力杆并且在每侧有六个橡胶-轮彀负重轮,驱动链轮在后部。炮塔和车体是全-焊接钢装甲制造。


The Type 96 the PLA’s first MBT that is fitted with a 125mm smoothbore gun and uses three-man crew with autoloader.
96式是PLA第一种配备有一门125毫米滑膛炮装有自动装弹机和采用三名乘员的主战坦克(MBT)。
 
ARMAMENT
武器
 
The Type 96 has an indigenous smoothbore 125mm/48-calibre gun with autoloader of Russian 2A46M design. By introducing the autoloader to reduce the crew to three men, more rounds are available for the higher rate of fire. The tank can carry 42 rounds, 22 of them stored in the carousel of the autoloader, and the gun can fire at 6~8 rounds per minute.
96式采用本国自行生产的125毫米/48倍口径滑膛炮,装有俄国设计的2A46M自动装弹机。通过引进自动装弹机去减少乘员到三名,更多的弹药可供应用于高发射速度。坦克能携带42发弹药,他们中的22发在自动装弹机的圆盘传送带中储存,而且主炮能以6~8发/分钟的射速射击。
 
The main gun is capable firing APFSDS, HEAT, and HEAT-FRAG. The more recent BK-27 HEAT round offers a triple-shaped charge warhead and increased penetration against conventional armour and explosive reactive armour (ERA). The BK-29 round, with a hard penetrator in the nose is specially designed for use against reactive armour, and as an MP round has fragmentation effects. 
主炮有能力发射APFSDS、HEAT和HEAT-FRAG。最新的BK-27HEAT弹药,提供一个三重-锥形装药弹头和增加对抗传统装甲和爆炸反应装甲(ERA)的穿透。BK-29弹药,在前部采用一个特别设计的硬穿透器,用来对抗反应装甲使用,而且被当做一种MP弹药具有碰片效果。 
 
The tank also carries the Russian 9M119 Refleks (NATO codename: AT-11 Sniper) anti-tank guided missile system which is fired from the 125mm main gun. The range of the missile is 100m to 4,000m. The system is intended to engage tanks fitted with ERA as well as low-flying air targets such as helicopters, at a range of up to 5km. China has been producing the 9M119 missile locally under license since the late 1990s.
坦克也携带俄国9M119 Refleks(北约代号: AT-11“狙击兵”)从125毫米主炮发射的反坦克导弹系统。导弹的射程是100米到4,000米。系统预定去交战配备有爆炸反应装甲(ERA)的坦克和低飞空中目标,像是直升飞机,在射程达到5公里。中国从1990年后期在国内许可之下已经生产9M119导弹。


The Type 96 is also fitted with the Russian-made 9M119 Refleks (NATO codename: AT-11 Sniper) gun-fired anti-tank guided missile (ATGM), or its Chinese licensed copy.
96式也配备有俄国制造的9M119 Refleks(北约代号:AT-11 “狙击兵”)炮射反坦克导弹(ATGM),或它的中国获许可的仿造型。
 
Auxiliary weapons include one 7.62mm coaxial machine gun, with a maximum fire-range of 1,800 m and a fire rate of 250 rounds/min. A 12.7mm/50-calibre anti-aircraft machine gun is mounted on the command cupola, with a maximum fire-range of 2,000m.
附加的武器包括7.62毫米同轴机枪,具有1,800米的最大射程和250发/分钟射速。12.7毫米/.50口径防空机枪被安装在指挥炮塔上,具有2,000米的最大射程。
 
FIRE CONTROL AND OBSERVATION
火控和观察
 
Fire accuracy is attained by an ISFCS-212 image-stabilised fire control system with laser rangefinder input. In addition, the tank may be fitted with GPS and infrared jamming/disturbing systems.
射击精度的获得由一套ISFCS-212图像-稳定火控系统使用激光测距仪输入。除此之外,坦克可能配备有全球定位系统和红外抑制/干扰系统。
 
PROTECTION
保护
 
The hull and turret are protected by composite armour plating. Wheels and tracks are protected by rubber hull skirts. The turret is surrounded by storage racks are more of a Western design influence. Those storage racks not only offer extra places for the crew to store their equipment but it also provides additional protections against HEAT projectiles. There are six smoke grenade launchers on each side of the turret. Additional smoke can be generated by injecting diesel fuel in to the engine's exhaust.
车体和炮塔由复合装甲块保护。车轮和履带由橡胶裙衬保护。炮塔被仓储架包围更多的是西方设计影响。那些仓储架不但提供额外的位置让组员储存他们的装备而且它也提供对抗HEAT射弹的附加保护。在炮塔的每侧有六个烟榴弹发射器。另外的烟幕可能由喷射柴油燃料到发动机排气管产生。
 
PROPULSION
推进
 
The Type 96 has a combat weight of 42.5t. It is powered by a liquid cooled 1,000hp diesel engine, providing a power to weight ratio of about 23.52hp/ton. The engine can be replaced within 40 minutes in field conditions, and gives the tank a maximum road speed of 57km/h.
96式战斗重量42.5吨。它采用一台水冷1,000马力发动机,提供大约23.52马力/吨功率到重量比。发动机在战场状态中在40分钟内能被替换,而且提供给坦克57公里/小时最大道路速度。
 
SPECIFICATIONS
规格
 
Crew: 3 
Weight: 42.5 tons
Engine: 1,000hp liquid-cooled diesel
Transmission: Mechanical, planetary
Track: Metallic with RMSh, with rubber-tyred road wheels
Suspension: Torsion bar
Radio: Receive/transmit, telephone
Dimension: Length: 10.65m; Height: 2.30m; Width: 3.30m 
Cruising Range: 400km
Speed: Max road 65km/h
Fording Depths: N/A 
Main Gun: 125mm smoothbore, 42 rounds 
Rate of Fire: 6~8 rounds/min 
Elevation/Depression: N/A 
Auxiliary Weapon: One coaxial 7.62mm machine gun; one 12.7mm air-defence machine gun
Fire Control: ISFCS with laser rangefinder input, onboard computer, wind sensor, and control panel
 
组员: 3
重量: 42.5 吨
发动机: 1,000 马力 水-冷柴油发动机
传动: 机械,行星
履带: 金属使用RMSh,橡胶-轮彀道路轮
悬挂: 扭力杆
无线电: 接收/传送,电话
尺寸: 长度 10.65 米;高度: 2.30 米;宽度: 3.30 米
航程: 400 公里
速度: 最大道路 65 公里/小时
涉水深度: N/A
主炮: 125 毫米 滑膛炮,42发
射速: 6~8发/分钟
俯角/仰角: N/A
辅助武器: 一挺同轴 7.62 毫米机枪;一挺 12.7 毫米防空机枪
火控: 使用激光测距仪输入的ISFCS,车载计算机,风传感器和控制仪表

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