Second Chinese Naval Demagnetization Facility Spotted

第二处中国海军消磁站被发现

Date:2013-10-26 Source:Fas By:Globalmil Viewed:

 

Click image for large version
点击查看大图

By Hans M. Kristensen
作者:汉斯·克里斯滕森

The Chinese navy has constructed what appears to be a demagnetization facility near an East Sea Fleet submarine base.

中国海军在一个东海舰队潜艇基地附近显示已经建成一处消磁站。

The facility is the second spotted at Chinese naval bases since 2008.

自从2008年以后是在中国海军基础看见的第二处设施。

Chinese Naval Demagnetization Facilities

中国海军的消磁设施

The new demagnetization facility is located less than 10 km from the Kilo submarine base at Maocao Nong approximately 40 km southeast of Ningbo in the Zhejiang province.

新的消磁站大约位于浙江省宁波东南部大约40公里在Maocao Nong的基洛级潜艇基地不超过10公里的地方。

Seven Kilo-class submarines were visible at the base on January 15, 2009, nearly a third of the roughly 19 diesel-electric attack submarines that are deployed with the East Sea Fleet.

7艘基洛级潜水艇在2009年1月15日在基地被看到,几乎是东海舰队部署的19艘柴电攻击潜艇数目的近三分之一。

Location of New Demagnetization Facility
中国海军的消磁站位置
The East Sea Fleet demagnetization facility is located near a submarine base south of Ningbo, at coordinates 29°31′14.28″N, 121°40′30.00″E. Click image to see larger version.东海舰队消磁站位置在宁波南方的潜艇基地附近,坐标29°31′14.28″ N,121°40′30.00″E。点击查看大图。

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The East Sea Fleet facility was built between August 2007 and March 2008.

东海舰队消磁站在2007年8月至2008年3月之间建造。

The East Sea Fleet facility is the second known Chinese demagnetization facility. In April 2008, I identified the first such facility at the South Sea Fleet base near Yulin on Hainan Island.

东海舰队消磁站是第二个已知的中国消磁设施。在2008年4月,我在海南岛榆林附近的南海舰队基地认出第一处此类设施。

The South Sea Fleet facility was constructed sometime between January 2006 and February 2008.

南海舰队消磁站在过去2006年1月至2008年2月之间建造。

Comparison of Chinese and U.S. Demagnetization Facilities
中国和美国消磁设施的比较
China’s two known naval demagnetization facilities are similar, capable of handling all Chinese submarine sizes, and similar in design to U.S. demagnetization facilities.
Click image to see larger version.中国的二处已知的海军消磁站是类似的,有能力处理所有尺寸的中国潜艇,和美国消磁设施的设计相似。点击查看大图。

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The two demagnetization facilities are similar but with differences. The South Sea Fleet facility is built in a c-shape, similar to the U.S. design. The East Sea Fleet facility, which is located in a river, consists of two parallel piers, perhaps to accommodate strong currents.

二处消磁站既相似但是又具有不同之处。南海舰队消磁站建造成一个c字形,类似美国设计。东海舰队消磁站位于一条河上,由二条平行码头所组成,也许为了适应强劲的水流。

The Purpose of Demagnetization

消磁的目的

Demagnetization is conducted before deployment to remove residual magnetic fields in the metal of a vessel to make it harder to detect by other submarines and surface ships. It reduces the ship’s vulnerability to mines that are triggered by magnetic signals from metal hulls. Demagnetization apparently also can improve the speed of the vessel.

消磁是在部署前进行为了去除舰艇金属外壳上残留的磁场,以免在运行过程中被其它潜艇和水面舰艇发现。它减少舰艇受那种金属舰体磁信号触发水雷的攻击。消磁显然地也能改良舰艇的速度。

Demagnetization of Ballistic Missile Submarine
弹道导弹潜艇的消磁
A U.S. SSBN is prepared for demagnetization at the Kitsap Naval Submarine Base near Bangor, Washington. The U.S. Navy has such facilities on both coasts.一艘美国SSBN在华盛顿班戈区附近的Kitsap潜艇基地准备消磁。美国海军在东西两个海岸有此类设施。

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Both submarines and surface ships are demagnetized at regular intervals.

潜艇和水面舰艇两者都在定期被消磁。

Nuclear-powered submarines including SSBNs are based at the North Sea and South Sea Fleets, but not at the East Sea Fleet. I suspect that we’ll see construction of a North Sea Fleet demagnetization facility soon.

包括SSBN在内的核动力潜艇基地在北海舰队和南海舰队,但是没有在东海舰队。我怀疑我们将会很快在北海舰队看到建造消磁设施。

Some Implications

一些暗示

Occasional Chinese naval force operations get prominent attention in western news media, such as the recent transit between Okinawa and Miyako Island of eight destroyers and two submarines. Routine operations by U.S. forces, on the other hand, are rarely described except when they involve large exercises or when incidents occasionally expose secret options such as the Impeccable incident in 2009.

偶尔的中国海军力量活动引起西方媒体的特别关注,例如最近八艘驱逐舰和两艘潜艇穿越了日本冲绳附近的公海。而美国海军惯例活动,在另一方面则很少有媒体报道,除非涉及到大规模军演,或者涉及秘密行动,比如2009年发生的“无瑕”号事件。

Mining of harbors and costal areas would likely be an important mission for both U.S. and Chinese attack submarines and anti-submarine warfare forces in a hypothetical military conflict between China and the United States. Chinese naval forces have, despite ongoing modernization, significant technological and operational deficiencies.

港口和海岸地区敷设水雷对于中美双方的攻击型潜艇和反潜战力量在一个假设的中美之间军事冲突中来说,都是非常重要的任务。中国海军的力量,尽管不断现代化,缺乏重要的技术和操作。

So why has China not constructed naval demagnetization facilities earlier? After all, other naval powers have done so for decades after German engineers during World War II invented the magnetic mine. According to one report, China appears to have used degaussing vessels rather than fixed facilities.

所以为什么中国不早一些建造海军的消磁设施?毕竟,其他的海军力量在第二次世界大战期间德国工程师设计发明磁性水雷之后已经这么做长达数十年之久。依照一份报告,中国似乎已经用消磁船而不是固定设施。

Perhaps construction now reflects acquisition of new technology, a decision that fixed facilities are more efficient than degaussing vessels, or that modifications to China’s naval strategy make demagnetization more important.

舰艇消磁站的建造也许说明了中国获得了新技术,也许是中国发现固定的消磁设施比消磁舰艇更有效率,也许是因为消磁站在中国海军的战略调整中变得更加重要。

Whatever the motivation, the construction of demagnetization facilities at China’s fleets are clear tell-signs of the cat-and-mouse game that is in full swing in the region between the naval forces of China and the United States and its Asian allies.

不管动机是什么,中国舰队建造舰艇消磁站的举动都在发出了一个明显的信号:中国海军与美国及其亚洲盟国的海军之间正在进行的“猫捉老鼠的游戏”会越来越活跃。

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