Date:2017-01-07 Source:Internet By:Globalmil Viewed:

China NORINCO revealed its 155mm laser-guided artillery weapon system for export market recently. It is believed that a 152mm version of the weapon system was also developed for the uses of the PLA. The semi-active laser-guided projectile can be operated with both Type 66 towed 152mm gun-howitzer and Type 83 self-propelled 152mm gun-howitzer.中国北方工业总公司(NORINCO)最近为出口市场展示了它的155毫米激光制导火炮武器系统。一般据信武器系统的一种152毫米型号为PLA的使用也被发展。主动激光制导射弹可能被66式牵引152毫米榴弹炮和83式自行152毫米榴弹炮两者操作。

China obtained the Russian Krasnopol semi-active laser-guided projectile technology in the 1990s. The Krasnopol technology has been used to develop China’s own indigenous laser-guided projectiles. The resulting 152/155mm laser-guided artillery weapon system was first revealed in 2004.
The 152/155mm laser-guided artillery weapon system is designed to engage tanks and armoured combat vehicles (static or at a speed of up to 36km/h), and other point targets such as artillery battery, C4I centres, defensive fortifications, and surface ships. The weapon system enables a tube artillery unit to fire at individual targets (to include pinpoint targets such as tanks, infantry fighting vehicles, field fortifications) with a high probability of a first-round kill. Thus, the traditional requirement for an area fire or artillery barrage is eliminated.
The weapon system can also be used to fire at group targets using the same gun settings computed relative to the centre of mass of the group target. Additionally, the laser-guided projectile can be fired without meteorological and ballistic data at a range of 10~12km.
China NORINCO has revealed its 155mm laser-guided projectiles for export market, but it is believed that the 152mm projectile has also been developed for the uses of the PLA. The weapon system can be operated with both towed (Type 66 152mm, Type 89 155mm) and self-propelled (Type 83 152mm, PLZ-45 155mm) gun-howitzers. Its general performance is believed to be comparable to that of the Russian Krasnopol.
The laser-guided artillery weapon system complex includes the 152/155mm projectile, a tripod-mounted laser target designator (LTD), and the shot synchronization system which includes the battery command post and forward observation post. Once a target has been detected by a forward observer, one to two rounds are fired for target engagement. At the initial phase of the flight, projectile fly under the inertial effect force. As the projectile approaches the target, the forward observer illuminates the targets using the LTD, which has an effective range of 500~5,000m.

The Chinese 152/155mm semi-active laser-guided projectile is based on the Russian Krasnopol technology. China reportedly obtained the Krasnopol technology in the late 1990s.中国152毫米/155毫米半主动激光制导射弹以俄国 Krasnopol技术为基础。中国在1990年后期中根据传闻获得了Krasnopol技术。
A signal confirming the firing of the projectiles is transmitted from the firing unit to the forward observer via a communication channel. The forward observer continues to illuminate the target with a laser beam during the terminal phase of the projectile’s flight. The projectile's gyroscopic homing head locks onto the target beam, and aerodynamic control surfaces (located on the projectile body) guide the projectile to the target. Once the target is destroyed, the forward observer can shift to another target and continue to engage either pre-planned targets or targets of opportunity.
The 1991 and 2003 Gulf Wars have demonstrated that the precision strike weapons has a revolutionary impact on the development and application of combined arms doctrine and tactics. The United States demonstrated that the force that initially attains and maintains fire superiority has the advantage of freedom of manoeuvre and reduced casualties from enemy artillery fire. The artillery precision weapons such as guided projectiles provide users with the capability of target destruction at lower expenditure rates and shorter firing times. The potential low-cost proliferation of these weapons offers a capability to successfully attack and destroy enemy targets ranging from thinly protected C 4I systems to armoured vehicles at a critical place and time in a future battlefield. Thus, these weapons can also become a force multiplier for small forces (guerrilla, etc.) against a larger, technically advanced force in low intensity conflicts or military operations.
However, the laser-guided projectiles also have their limitations. Synchronisation of information between the firing unit and the forward observer is absolutely critical to the effective operation of the artillery weapon system. The likelihood of a laser-guided projectile achieving a first-round hit is severely reduced if the projectile is not delivered on time. Even the likelihood of a second-round hit is diminished due to the variation in location of a moving target. It takes a great amount of training for the artillery units to learn how to pre-plan kill zones and the forward observer to predetermine the points of engagement covered by the projectile's seeker footprint (about 2km in diameter).
Not only the forward observer (LTD operator) has to develop or learn the skills required to determine and prioritise the threats of different enemy targets in the battlefield, he also has to learn to determine conditions that either enhance or degrade the use of the munitions and plan a kill zones to maximise the killing effects. This again requires a significant amount of training and practice.
Another major shortcoming of employing the laser-guided projectile (as well as other laser-guided munitions) is the requirement to illuminate the target with the laser beam for five to fifteen seconds. Long target-illumination times enable enemy targets equipped with laser warning detectors to effectively employ countermeasures that prevent the target from further illumination by the laser beam. Additionally, the effectiveness of the LTD is also easily affected by the smoke and dust commonly seen in the battlefield.
Calibre: 152mm or 155mm
Range: 20km
Warhead type: HE-FRAG
Target attack profile: Diving top attack
Flight phases: (Initial) free flight; (middle) inertial; (final) laser-guidance
口径: 152 毫米 或 155 毫米
射程: 20 公里
弹头类型: HE-FRAG
目标攻击轮廓: 俯冲顶部攻击
飞行阶段: (开始)发射飞行;(中间)惯性;(末端)激光-制导

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