152/155MM LASER-GUIDED ARTILLERY WEAPON SYSTEM

中国152/155毫米激光制导火炮武器系统

Date:2017-01-07 Source:Internet By:Globalmil Viewed:


China NORINCO revealed its 155mm laser-guided artillery weapon system for export market recently. It is believed that a 152mm version of the weapon system was also developed for the uses of the PLA. The semi-active laser-guided projectile can be operated with both Type 66 towed 152mm gun-howitzer and Type 83 self-propelled 152mm gun-howitzer.中国北方工业总公司(NORINCO)最近为出口市场展示了它的155毫米激光制导火炮武器系统。一般据信武器系统的一种152毫米型号为PLA的使用也被发展。主动激光制导射弹可能被66式牵引152毫米榴弹炮和83式自行152毫米榴弹炮两者操作。

China obtained the Russian Krasnopol semi-active laser-guided projectile technology in the 1990s. The Krasnopol technology has been used to develop China’s own indigenous laser-guided projectiles. The resulting 152/155mm laser-guided artillery weapon system was first revealed in 2004.
中国在1990年获得了俄国“红土地”(Krasnopol)半主动激光制导发射技术。Krasnopol技术已经用来发展中国本国激光制导射弹。制造的152/155毫米激光制导火炮武器系统在2004年被首次展示。
 
The 152/155mm laser-guided artillery weapon system is designed to engage tanks and armoured combat vehicles (static or at a speed of up to 36km/h), and other point targets such as artillery battery, C4I centres, defensive fortifications, and surface ships. The weapon system enables a tube artillery unit to fire at individual targets (to include pinpoint targets such as tanks, infantry fighting vehicles, field fortifications) with a high probability of a first-round kill. Thus, the traditional requirement for an area fire or artillery barrage is eliminated.
152/155毫米激光制导火炮武器系统被设计去同坦克和装甲战斗车辆(静止或行进速度达到36公里/小时)交战,而且其它的点目标例如火炮单元、C4I中心、防御工事和水面舰艇。武器系统使一个管式火炮单位能够以首发弹药高概率杀伤对单个目标(包括极小目标,像是坦克、步兵战车、战场防御工事)射击。因此,传统的需求为了一个区域发射或火炮弹幕被取消。
 
The weapon system can also be used to fire at group targets using the same gun settings computed relative to the centre of mass of the group target. Additionally, the laser-guided projectile can be fired without meteorological and ballistic data at a range of 10~12km.
武器系统也能被用于向集群目标射击,使用同一炮管设定计算相对于集群目标的中心发射。附加地,激光制导的射弹在射程10~12公里不需要气象和弹道数据就能被发射。
 
China NORINCO has revealed its 155mm laser-guided projectiles for export market, but it is believed that the 152mm projectile has also been developed for the uses of the PLA. The weapon system can be operated with both towed (Type 66 152mm, Type 89 155mm) and self-propelled (Type 83 152mm, PLZ-45 155mm) gun-howitzers. Its general performance is believed to be comparable to that of the Russian Krasnopol.
中国北方工业总公司(NORINCO)已经为出口市场展示它的155毫米激光制导射弹,但是一般相信152毫米射弹为PLA的使用也已经被发展。武器系统能在牵引式(66式152毫米,89式155毫米)和自行式(83式152毫米,PLZ-45型155毫米)两者榴弹炮操作。它的一般性能据信可比得上俄国Krasnopol。
 
DESIGN
设计
 
The laser-guided artillery weapon system complex includes the 152/155mm projectile, a tripod-mounted laser target designator (LTD), and the shot synchronization system which includes the battery command post and forward observation post. Once a target has been detected by a forward observer, one to two rounds are fired for target engagement. At the initial phase of the flight, projectile fly under the inertial effect force. As the projectile approaches the target, the forward observer illuminates the targets using the LTD, which has an effective range of 500~5,000m.
激光制导火炮武器系统组成包括152/155毫米射弹,一个三脚上安装的激光目标指示器(LTD)和发射同步系统,那些包括炮兵连指挥站和前方观察站。一但一个目标被一位前方观察员发现,一到二发用于目标交战被发射。在飞行的开始阶段,射弹在惯性作用力下飞行。如射弹接近目标,前方的观察员照明使用激光目标指示器照射目标,有效距离500~5,000米。


The Chinese 152/155mm semi-active laser-guided projectile is based on the Russian Krasnopol technology. China reportedly obtained the Krasnopol technology in the late 1990s.中国152毫米/155毫米半主动激光制导射弹以俄国 Krasnopol技术为基础。中国在1990年后期中根据传闻获得了Krasnopol技术。
 
A signal confirming the firing of the projectiles is transmitted from the firing unit to the forward observer via a communication channel. The forward observer continues to illuminate the target with a laser beam during the terminal phase of the projectile’s flight. The projectile's gyroscopic homing head locks onto the target beam, and aerodynamic control surfaces (located on the projectile body) guide the projectile to the target. Once the target is destroyed, the forward observer can shift to another target and continue to engage either pre-planned targets or targets of opportunity.
确定射弹的发射信号从射击单位到前方观察员经由一个通信通道传输。前方观察员在射弹飞行末端期间连续用一个激光束照明目标。射弹的陀螺仪寻的制导头在目标光束上锁定,而且空气动力学的控制面(位于射弹的弹体上)引导射弹到目标。一旦目标被摧毁,前方观察员也能改变到另外的一个目标而且继续去交战其它预先计划了的目标或机会目标。
 
EFFECTIVENESS
效能
 
The 1991 and 2003 Gulf Wars have demonstrated that the precision strike weapons has a revolutionary impact on the development and application of combined arms doctrine and tactics. The United States demonstrated that the force that initially attains and maintains fire superiority has the advantage of freedom of manoeuvre and reduced casualties from enemy artillery fire. The artillery precision weapons such as guided projectiles provide users with the capability of target destruction at lower expenditure rates and shorter firing times. The potential low-cost proliferation of these weapons offers a capability to successfully attack and destroy enemy targets ranging from thinly protected C 4I systems to armoured vehicles at a critical place and time in a future battlefield. Thus, these weapons can also become a force multiplier for small forces (guerrilla, etc.) against a larger, technically advanced force in low intensity conflicts or military operations.
1991年和2003年海湾战争已经表明精确打击武器在发展与综合武器学说应用和战术方面的一个革命的冲击。美国示范最初军队实现和维持火力优势拥有机动自由的优点并且减少了来自敌人炮击的伤亡。炮兵精确武器,像是制导射弹提供使用者以较低的成本开支率和较短射击时间提供目标摧毁能力。在未来战场上危急的地点和时间从弱保护C4I系统到装甲车辆,这些武器潜在低成本增殖提供一个成功地攻击和摧毁敌人目标的能力。因此,这些武器也能为小规模军队(游击队等)变成一个力量倍增器。在低强度冲突或军事行动中对抗较大、技术上先进的军队。
 
However, the laser-guided projectiles also have their limitations. Synchronisation of information between the firing unit and the forward observer is absolutely critical to the effective operation of the artillery weapon system. The likelihood of a laser-guided projectile achieving a first-round hit is severely reduced if the projectile is not delivered on time. Even the likelihood of a second-round hit is diminished due to the variation in location of a moving target. It takes a great amount of training for the artillery units to learn how to pre-plan kill zones and the forward observer to predetermine the points of engagement covered by the projectile's seeker footprint (about 2km in diameter).
然而,激光制导射弹也有它们的限制。射击单位和前方的观察员之间的信息同步完全地对火炮武器系统的操作效果具有决定性。如果激光制导射弹没有准时发射,实现首发攻击严重地降低。更甚至第二发攻击可能由于一个移动目标的位置变化同样被降低。它接受一个大的训练量用于炮兵单位,去学习预定计划杀伤点和前方观察员去预定被射弹导引头预定着陆点覆盖的交战点(大约直径2公里)。
 
Not only the forward observer (LTD operator) has to develop or learn the skills required to determine and prioritise the threats of different enemy targets in the battlefield, he also has to learn to determine conditions that either enhance or degrade the use of the munitions and plan a kill zones to maximise the killing effects. This again requires a significant amount of training and practice.
不仅前方观察员(LTD操作员)必须培养或学习必需的技能去确定和优先次序战场上不同敌人目标的威胁,他也必须学习确定条件去提高或降低弹药使用量,并且计划一个杀伤区去最大化杀伤效果。这再一次需要大量的培训和练习。
 
Another major shortcoming of employing the laser-guided projectile (as well as other laser-guided munitions) is the requirement to illuminate the target with the laser beam for five to fifteen seconds. Long target-illumination times enable enemy targets equipped with laser warning detectors to effectively employ countermeasures that prevent the target from further illumination by the laser beam. Additionally, the effectiveness of the LTD is also easily affected by the smoke and dust commonly seen in the battlefield.
使用激光制导射弹(和其它的激光制导军需品)的另外主要的缺点是必需用激光束照明目标达五到十五秒之久。长目标-照明时间能够使装备激光目标警告探测器的敌人去有效的采用对抗措施防止目标进一步被激光束照明。另外,LTD的效用也容易地被普遍在战场中被看到的烟和灰尘影响。
 
SPECIFICATIONS
规格
 
Calibre: 152mm or 155mm
Range: 20km
Warhead type: HE-FRAG
Target attack profile: Diving top attack
Flight phases: (Initial) free flight; (middle) inertial; (final) laser-guidance
 
口径: 152 毫米 或 155 毫米
射程: 20 公里
弹头类型: HE-FRAG
目标攻击轮廓: 俯冲顶部攻击
飞行阶段: (开始)发射飞行;(中间)惯性;(末端)激光-制导
 
 

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