DongFeng 21 (CSS-5) Medium-Range Ballistic Missile


Date:2013-10-26 Source:internet By:globalmil Viewed:

The DF-21 IRBM is China's first solid-fuel surface-to-surface missile.
DF-21 IRBM是中国第一种固体燃料地对地导弹

The DongFeng 21 (NATO code name: CSS-5) is a two-stage, solid-propellant, single-warhead medium-range ballistic missile (MRBM) system developed by China Changfeng Mechanics and Electronics Technology Academy (also known as 2nd Space Academy). The missile design is based on the two-stage JuLang 1 submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM). The DongFeng 21 is capable of delivering a 500kT nuclear warhead over a distance of 1,800km. Some DongFeng 21 missiles are reportedly armed with a conventional warhead. The improved DongFeng 21A with extended range was reportedly introduced in 1996. China has also developed the Kaituozhe 1 (KT-1) space launch vehicle based on the DongFeng 21 design.

东风(DongFeng) 21(DF-21,北约代号:CSS-5)是一种二级、固体推进剂、单弹头中程弹道导弹(MRBM),由中国长峰机电技术研究设计院(也即是中国航天工业总公司第二研究院)发展。导弹设计以二级巨浪(JuLang) 1潜射弹道导弹(SLBM)为基础。DF-21能够在1,800公里射程上递送500 kT的核弹头。一些DF-21导弹根据传闻装配一枚常规弹头。增加射程的改进DF-21A据传闻在1996年推出。中国也已经发展基于DF-21设计的开拓者(Kaituozhe) 1(KT-1)运载火箭。


In March 1967 the Commission of Science, Technology, and Industry for National Defence (COSTIND) decided to develop a land-based solid-propellant strategic ballistic missile. However, due to the impact of the Culture Revolution, the missile development did not start until August 1978.



In 1979 the solid-propellant ballistic missile design team, which was also in charge of the JL-1 submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM) development, was subordinated to 2nd Aerospace Academy, with Huang Wei-Lu appointed as the chief designer. The proposal to develop the DongFeng 21 land-based medium-range ballistic missile (MRBM) based on the JL-1 SLBM design and technology was finally approved by the PLA in June 1980.

在1979年固体推进剂弹道导弹的设计队伍,也负责JL-1潜射弹道导弹(SLBM)发展,被纳入第二研究院,同时Huang Wei-Lu被任命担任主设计师。提议基于JL-1 SLBM设计和技术发展DF-21陆基中程弹道导弹(MRBM),最后在1980年6月被PLA核准。

As well as the development of the ballistic missile, 2nd Aerospace Academy was also responsible for developing the transporter-erector-launcher (TEL) vehicle, missile canister, missile testing and aiming, and other launch and ground support systems. These systems had received rigid tests in various environment and weather conditions in 1984.


The first test launch of the DongFeng 21 missile took place in May 1985, followed by a second test launch using modified ground support system in May 1987. The missile was certified for design finalisation in 1988 and entered operational service in the 1990s. In the mid-1990s, CASIC 2nd Academy also introduced the improved DongFeng 21A (CSS-5 Mod 2) with increased range and accuracy.The DF-21 missile has never been promoted to the export market and so far there is no indication showing this missile or its technology has been transferred to any foreign country.

DF-21导弹的第一次试射在1985年5月进行,接着在1987年5月第二次测试发射采用了改进地面支援系统。导弹在1988年为设计定型进行鉴定并在1990年进入操作服役。在1990年中期,中国航天科技集团公司(CASIC)第二研究院也推出具有增加射程和提高精度的改良DF-21A(CSS-5 Mod 2)。DF-21导弹从未被推销到出口市场,而且到现在为止没有迹象显示这一种导弹或它的技术已经被转移到国外。

The DF-21 was first revealed in the 1999 national day military parade held in Beijing.


The DongFeng 21 is a two-stage, solid-fuel, single-warhead medium-range ballistic missile system designed to provide target coverage in Asia and West Pacific regions. No detailed information is available regarding the missile’s performance or design, but it is estimated that the DongFeng 21 might be similar to the JL-1 SLBM in general aerodynamic layout. The missile might uses nozzle controls with no stabilising fins.


DF-21是一种二级、固体燃料、中程弹道导弹系统设计去提供亚洲和西太平洋区域目标覆盖。没有关于导弹性能或设计可得的详细数据,但是一般估计DF-21可能与JL-1 SLBM在空气动力学布局方面相似。导弹可能使用喷嘴控制并没有稳定翼。

The missile uses an inertial guidance, coupled to a terminal radar-guidance system to increase the accuracy. The missile’s CEP is estimated to be about 300~400m. The missile carries a single 100kT, 200kT, or 500kT nuclear warhead, but can also configured to carry conventional HE warheads.

导弹采用惯性导航,结合一个末端机雷达-制导系统增加精度。导弹的CEP估计大约300~400米。导弹携带单一100 kT、200 kT或500 kT核弹头,但是也能配置去携带常规弹头。

The missile is contained in an alumni-alloy cylinder launch–tube which keeps the missile in an invariable temperature environment. The launch tubes have an elevation range of 0 to 90 degrees. The azimuth range is from -180 to +180 degrees. The missile launch-tube is carried on a 3-axes semi-trailer TEL, which is towed by a HY473 6X6 tractor truck. The TEL trailer and tractor are equipped with hydraulically operated stabilisers which are lowered in preparation for the missile launch.

导弹储存在一个铝合金圆筒形发射管内保持导弹在恒温环境。发射管具有竖起范围0到90度。方位角从-180到+180度。导弹发射管装载在一辆3轴半-拖挂TEL上,被一辆HY473 6X6牵引车牵引。TEL和牵引车装备液压操作稳定装置,在导弹准备发射时降下。

The DF-21 is carried on a HY-473 TEL vehicle for road mobilisation


It is estimated that so far around 60~80 DongFeng 21 missiles and 30~40 launcher systems may have been deployed by the PLA Second Artillery Corps in 7 missile brigades:



  • 802 旅(Brigade)
  • 807 旅(Brigade)
  • 808 旅(Brigade)
  • 809 旅(Brigade)
  • 811 旅(Brigade)
  • 822 旅(Brigade)
  • 823 旅(Brigade)


It is estimated DF-21 missile systems have been deployed by the PLA Second Artillery Corps in 4 locations:

Tonghua, Liaoning Province, near Korea Peninsula, Japan and the Far East Russia
Liangxiwang, Jiangxi Province, near Taiwan Strait
Jianshui, Yunnan Province, near South-East Asia
Xining, Qinghai Province, near China-India border and Middle Asia.




The DF-21 in field mobilisation exercise

The DF-21 TEL with snow camouflage

These missiles are generally deployed in areas closer to China’s borders to ensure adequate target overage of areas previously covered by the DF-3 IRBM, which has a longer range, but is less accurate compared to DongFeng 21. There have reports suggesting that some DongFeng 21 MRBMs have been re-fitted with conventional warheads.

这些导弹通常在比较靠近中国边境部署,去确保足够由以前DF-3 IRBM担负的目标覆盖和区域设定覆盖,DF-3 IRBM具有较远射程,但是与DF-21相比较精度较低。有报道认为一些DF-21 MRBM已经重新安装常规弹头。

DF-21 launch


Official name: DongFeng 21 (DF-21)
NATO reporting name: CSS-5
Contractor: CASIC 2nd Academy
Service status: In service
Configuration: Two-stage, solid propellant
Deployment: Road mobile, 6X6 tractor truck + six-wheel trailer; or silo
Length: 10.7m
Diameter: 1.4m
Launch weight: 14,700kg
Range: 1,770km
Re-entry vehicle mass: 600kg
Warhead: One single 500kT yield, or conventional
Guidance: Inertial + terminal radar guidance
Accuracy: CEP 300~400m


正式名称: 东风(DongFeng) 21(DF-21)
北约报告命名: CSS-5
承包商: 中国航天科技集团公司(CASIC)第二研究院
服役状态: 服役中
结构: 二级,固体推进剂
配置: 道路机动,6X6牵引车+六轮拖挂车;或发射井
长度: 10.7 米
直径: 1.4 米
发射重量: 14,700 公斤
射程: 1,770 公里
再入运载器质量: 600 公斤
弹头: 单一 500 kT 当量,或常规
制导: 惯性+末端雷达制导
精度: CEP 300~400 米

Last update: 18 February 2009

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