PLAN Type 62 Coastal Defense Boat

中国海军62型“上海”级海防艇

Date:2013-10-26 Source:china-defense By:globalmil Viewed:


This article is based on an article from Naval and Merchant ships with corrections and additions from China Today, People’s Navy and personal interviews.

The Type 62 Coastal Defense Boat, also known, as the Shanghai class, is a low-cost patrol boat made famous during the Indochina war of 1960s in service with the North Vietnamese Navy. Amazingly, this primitive is still in production after more then 300 examples were built. The Type 62 serves today as a first assignment for many of People’s Liberation Amy-Navy (PLAN) recruits and remains in service with many world navies.

62型海防艇,称为“上海”级,是一种低成本的巡逻艇,在60年代中期同台湾地区海军多次海战期间出名而且还在北越海军服役。令人惊异地,这一种简单的设计一直生产建造了超过300艘。62型目前用于许多中国海军(PLAN)新兵训练时充当最初指定船型并且在世界上许多国家海军保留现役。

DEVELOPMENT:

During the early 1950s, the PLAN began to design and manufacture small gunboats for patrol and continued naval warfare with Nationalist force around the Taiwan Strait . Initially, there were no coordinated building efforts among ships yards. Luda Shipyard laid down the Type 53 class littoral combatant while Qingdao Shipyard build the Type 55 class. In addition there were piecemeal production runs at both the Shanghai and Guangzhou shipyards. Those earlier types performed poorly as patrol boats and as combatant gunboats.

发展:

在1950年早期,PLAN开始设计和建造小型炮艇用于在台湾海峡周围巡逻和不断的海战。最初,没有在造船厂之间协调工作计划。“旅大”(Luda)船坞铺设53型滨海战斗炮艇同时青岛造船厂建造55型。另外的零散建造在上海和广州造船厂两者进行。那些较早的型号性能不足被当做巡逻艇和战斗炮艇。


 The earlier Type 55 Patrol Boat.较早的55型巡逻艇。

In late 1950s, an order from the PLAN called the production of a single 100 tons class with higher speed and greater firepower to fulfill littoral combat need. In February 1959, the Navy Ship Repair and Manufacture Department combined the strengths of several earlier models designed by various shipyards and the naval academy into a standard new model of patrol boat. Construction began on this new model in May 1960 at Dalian Shipyard, and after 2 years of trials, the design was finalized in November 1962.

在1950年后期,来自PLAN的一个命令单一生产一种100吨级具有高速和较强火力去实现滨海战斗需要。在1959年2月,东海舰队舰船修造部结合一些造船厂和海军院校的几种早期型号设计优点从事一种标准新型巡逻艇设计。1960年5月在大连造船厂开始着手于建造这一种新型号,接着在2年的试验之后,设计在1962年11月结束。

The first prototype was coded as the 0111 with a displacement of 125 tons. After the completion of the third prototype, the single 57mm cannon was replaced by a twin 37mm cannon, speed increased to 30 knots, and weight reduced to 115 tons. The modified design was officially accepted as Type 62 Model 0111A with official designation of Model 62 Coastal Defense Boat. Series production began the very same year.

第一艘原型代号为0111具有125吨的排水量。在第三艘原型完成之后,单57毫米舰炮被一门双联装37毫米舰炮代替,速度增加到30节,而且重量减少到115吨。经修改的设计正式验收被称为62-0111A型同时正式命名为62型海防艇,批量生产在同年开始。

The first three 0111 prototypes were exported to North Vietnam and later sunk.

第一批三艘0111原型被出口到北越并稍后被击沉。

EARTLY TYPE 62 PRODUCTION:

Displacement, tons: 113 standard; 115 to 125 full load
Dimensions, feet (meters): 127.3 × 17.7 × 5.6 (38.8 × 5.4 × 1.7)

早期62型生产:

排水量:标准113吨;满载115吨到125吨
尺寸:127.3英尺×17.7英尺×5.6英尺(38.8米×5.4米×1.7米)

The basic type 62 0111A has an all-metal hull, a single thin wooden deck and was powered by four simply but powerful V-12 Type 180 1200 horse power diesel engines. Its mechanical system was considered very reliable because it was based on very mature existing designs. In addition to built-in redundancy, all its mechanical systems had a manual override. With its easy controllability and high buoyancy, it could operate in most weather and handle rough the waters off the Taiwan Strait.

62-0111A基本型采用全金属艇体,单层木甲板,动力由四台简单但大功率的V-12-180型1200马力柴油发动机提供动力。因为它以非常成熟的现有设计为基础,所以它的机械系统被认为非常可靠。除了内建的冗余,它所有的机械系统采用手动优先控制。由于它容易操纵和高浮力,它可以在大多数的天气下操作和应对难以通行的台湾海峡沿海水域。

The basic armament of 0111A remained largely unchanged over time: two type 61 37mm/63 twin cannon capable of firing 180 rounds per minute, two type 61 25mm/60 twin cannon capable of firing 270 rounds per minute, twin Type 56 75mm recoilless rifles mounted forward an 82mm mortar mounted at the rear for nighttime illumination purposes, one smoke generator, and 8 to 10 sea mines. While the twin recoilless rifles were considered standard equipment, but during patrol duties, they were replaced by a powerful searchlight. The Type 62 was considered a heavily armed 100-ton class patrol boat during that period of time.

0111A型的基本武器在过去很大程度上保持无变化:二座61型37毫米/63双管舰炮能够一分钟发射180发弹药,二座61型25毫米/60双管舰炮有能力一分钟发射270发弹药,在前面安装一座双管56型75毫米无后座力线膛炮和在后面安装一门82毫米迫击炮用于夜间照明用途,一个烟幕施放器和8到10枚海洋水雷。虽然双管无后座力线膛炮被认为是标准装备,但是在巡逻任务期间,他们被一个大功率探照灯代替。在那段时期62型被公认是一种重装备100-吨级巡逻艇。

There were also some major shortcomings of the Type 62. It was a small patrol craft designed and build in China during the 1960s. The first production model offered horrible conditions for its crew it had no air-conditioning, an essential necessity for patrols on the South China Sea . Each crew bunk bed was only 2 square meters and allowed no room for any personal items. Its water tank could only contain 5 tons of fresh water, a crew of 40 could only last a week at sea. Loud engine noise and very limited living space took a great toll on the crew’s endurance.

62型也有一些主要缺点。它是小型巡逻艇设计而且中国在1960年期间建造。最初生产型为它的乘员提供恶劣条件,因为没有空调,这是对在南海上巡逻一个必要的需求。每个乘员的两层床只有2平方米而且没有为一些个人物品提供舱室。它的水槽仅仅容纳5吨淡水,40名乘员只可以在海上持续一个星期。巨大发动机噪音和非常有限的生活舱使乘员在忍耐力上付出巨大代价。

Other shortcomings included: short operational range; navigation and communication equipment were almost none-existent, and its bridge offered very low visibility. It could not venture far off shore nor stand any chance in actions against large well equipped enemy ships. It is a low-cast patrol boat designed for rapid wartime production; it was no surprise that both the hull and the engine had a very limited lifespan. Its engines were only capable of 300 to 400 operational hours. The design allowed Daling shipyard produce a Type 62 from start to finish in one month.

其它的缺点包括:短操作航程、几乎没有导航和通信设备,而且它的舰桥提供了非常低的视野。它不可以冒险远离海岸,也没有任何的机会对抗很好装备的敌人舰艇。它是一种低成本巡逻艇设计用于战时快速生产;在舰体和发动机两者上没有特别之处,都有一个非常有限的寿命。它的发动机只能够达到300到400个操作小时。设计允许大连造船厂从头到尾在一个月内完成一艘62型建造。

The production run of 0111A stood at 30 examples from 1962 to 1965, of which 17 were built (including the 3 prototypes) at Dalian , and 13 at Huangpu. The Huangpu copies were coded as 0111N, N stood for “ Nan ” or “South” in Chinese with cabin heating equipment removed.

从1962年到1965年0111A型生产运行保持在30艘,17艘在大连建造(包括3艘原型),和13艘在黄埔(Huangpu)造船厂。黄埔(Huangpu)仿造型代号0111N型,N在中文代表“Nan”或“南”同时拆除舱室内加热设备。

As the tensions in the Taiwan Strait cooled late 1960s, the requirement for the Type 62 also changed. In the following 0111B model, two of its four V-12 Type 180 1200 horse power diesel engines were replaced by a pair of long-life 300 horse power diesel engines for efficient operation at cruise and patrol speed. However, the new engines greatly reduced the top speed of the 0111B. A total of sixteen 0111B were built.

当台湾海峡紧张状况在1960年后期缓和,对62型的需求也改变。在接着的0111B型中,它的四台V-12-180型1200马力柴油发动机被两台长寿命300马力柴油发动机代替用于胜任在巡逻和巡航速度方面操作。然而,新的发动机极大降低了0111B型的最高航速。0111B型建造总数为16艘。


The Type 62 patroling at sea. 62型在海上巡逻。

LATER VARIANTS:

The mass production model WAS the radar-equipped 0111C with augmented with some damage control improvements. A total of were 216 produced in a number of shipyards. The production of the 0111D model started in February 1965 with a pair of more powerful 1300 horse power diesel engines in place of the short service life V-12 Type 180 engines, a total of 26 examples were built before switching to a slice modified 0111DII, or 0111DM as it was known for a period of time. With 59 examples of 0111DII, the production run of 0111D stood at 85 boats in total.

稍后改型:

大量生产WAS样式是装备雷达的0111C型增加一些船损管制改良。在许多的造船厂中建造总数为216艘。0111D型的生产在1965年2月,采用一对更大功率的1300马力柴油发动机代替短有效寿命V-12-180型1200马力发动机,在改为建造经部分改良的0111DII型或0111DM型之前,0111D型总共建造了26艘,事实上经过一段时间。连同0111DII型的59艘,0111D型的生产期内总共建造了85艘。

Three 0111C were used as prototypes for a new gasoline engine; the 0111R model which never entered production.

三艘0111C型被当做原型采用一种新的汽油发动机;0111R型没有进入建造。

As the requirement of PLAN continued to evolve, so did the Type 62. To counter submarine threats in the coastal shallow water in the 1970s a new anti-submarine model was introduced into production. Model 0111s had a Stag Ear, hull-mounted, high frequency, active search sonar with three five-tubes RBU 1200 anti-submarine mortars.

当时PLAN的需求是继续去发展,62式也是。1970年一种新的反潜型进入建造之内用于对抗海岸浅水区域潜艇威胁。0111S型有一套舰体安装、高频、主动搜寻Stag Ear声纳和三具五-管RBU 1200型反潜迫击炮。

 
The Anti-submarine Type 62 variant. 62反潜型。

The first 0111s was built in early 1972 and completed test trials by the end of the same year. A total of 27 examples of were produced.

第一艘0111S型在1972年早期建造而且在同年底之前完成了测试试验。建造总数为27艘。

Type 62-1:

Displacement, tons: 170 full load
Dimensions, feet (meters): 134.5 × 17.4 × 5.9 (41 × 5.3 × 1.8)

62式-1:

排水量: 满载170吨
尺寸:134.5英尺×17.4英尺×5.9英尺(41米×5.3米×1.8米)

Based on demand from the South Sea Fleet, PLAN decided to implement a much-improved 0111S model with the focus on improving crew comforts. The new Type 62-1 model had air conditioning, a larger fresh water tank, stabilizer fins, and much reduced engine noise. It entered service in 1985. The overall weight was increased to 170 tons.

基于来自南海舰队的需求,PLAN决定去建造一种大量改进的0111S型并致力于改进乘员设施。新的62-1型有了空调,较大的淡水箱,稳定鳍和大量减少了发动机噪音。它在1985年进入了服役。全重增加到170吨。

During the 1980 orders for the Type 62 decreased dramatically from the PLAN, however the basic design continued to serve with other government agencies. Type 62-1-0111E were border patrol boats with twin 25mm cannons replaced by a single 14.5mm machine gun and the Type 62-1-011F model anti-smuggler boats were equipped with a small crane for the launch and recovery of speed boats with additional weapon deleted.

在1980年PLAN订购62型急剧减少,然而基本型设计继续服务于其它的政府机关。62-1-0111E型边境巡逻艇采用双联25毫米机关炮代替单14.5毫米机枪,62-1-011F型反走私艇配备一个小型吊车用于吊放和回收快艇并取消附加武器。


The Type 62 Civilian Law Enforcement variant. 62式民用执法改型。

Sales:

According to Janes, Type 62’s export customers as follows:

Type 62:

Vietnam 8 in May 1966
Tanzania 7 in 1970-71
Guinea 2 in 1977
Albania 6
Bangladesh 8 in 1980-82
Congo 3
Egypt 4 in 1984
Sri Lanka 3 in 1991
Tanzania 2 in 1992.
Sales of Type 62-1:

Type 62-1:

Tunisia 3 in 1994
Sri Lanka 3 in 1995, 3 in May 1996, 3 in August 1998.
Bangladesh 1 in 1996
Sierra Leone 1 in 1997

销售:

依照简氏资料,62型外销客户如下列:

62式:

越南 8艘 在1966年5月
坦桑尼亚 7艘 在1970-71年
几内亚 2艘 在1977年
阿尔巴尼亚 6艘
孟加拉 8艘 在1980-82年
刚果 3艘
埃及 4艘 在1984年
斯里兰卡 3艘 在1991年
坦桑尼亚 2艘

62-1式:

北非共和国 3艘 在1994年
斯里兰卡 3艘 在1995年,3艘 在1996年5月,3艘 在1998年8月
孟加拉 1艘 在1996年
塞拉利昂 1艘 在1997年

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