Type 052D(Luyang III/Kunming class)destroyer

中国052D型(旅洋III/昆明级)驱逐舰

Date:2016-08-03 Source:wikipedia By:Globalmil Viewed:


NATO code name Luyang III class, or Kunming class after the lead ship
北约代号旅洋III型,之后首舰又称昆明级

The Type 052D destroyer (NATO code name Luyang III class, or Kunming class after the lead ship) is a class of guided missile destroyers being deployed by the Chinese People's Liberation Army Navy Surface Force. Currently it is being built at two different Chinese ship yards.
052D型驱逐舰(北约代号旅洋III型,之后首舰又称昆明级)是中国人民解放军海军水面部队正在部署的导弹驱逐舰的一个级别。目前,它正在两个不同的中国船厂建造。
 
After the Type 052C destroyer (NATO code name Luyang II class, or Lanzhou class after the lead ship), two new hulls were spotted under construction at Changxingdao-Jiangnan Shipyard (JNCX) in August 2012. According to imagery, they were armed with a new 130 mm main gun and new AESA radar system. Altogether six vessels of this class are now fitting out or under construction, one vessel is on sea trial and four vessels are active.
在052C型驱逐舰(北约代号旅洋II型或之后首舰又称兰州级)之后,根据2012年8月发现的图片两艘新船体正在位于长兴岛的江南造船厂(JNCX)建造,它们装备新型130毫米主炮和新型有源相控阵(AESA)雷达系统。总之该级六艘舰艇正在装配或正在建造,一艘在海试和四艘部署中。


Altogether six vessels of this class are now fitting out or under construction
该级六艘舰艇正在装配或正在建造
 
Nearing the completion of the first 12 Type 052D ships, the PLAN will shift production to the newer Type 055 destroyer.
即将完工的是第12艘052D型,该计划将生产转移到更新的055型导弹驱逐舰上。

Shiplist[船舶名录]
Name(命名)
Hull Number
弦号
Launched
下水
Commissioned
服役
Kunming(昆明)
172
08/2012
2014
Changsha(长沙)
173
12/2012
2015
Guiyang(贵阳)
175
07/2013
2015
Chengdu(成都)
176
2014
2016
Hefei(合肥)
154
2015
2017
Nanjing(南京)
155
2015
2017
Yinchuan(银川)
117
2014
2016
Taiyuan(太原)
118
2014
2016
-
119
2015
2017
-
120
2015
2017
 
Design
设计

 
The layout of the Type 052D is similar to the earlier Type 052C, but the superstructure of the Type 052D slopes inward at a greater angle, providing reduced radar cross-section. The helicopter hangar on the Type 052D is moved to the center, as opposed to being on the left like on the Type 052C. A pair of enclosed boat/raft launching systems similar to that of the Type 054A frigate is added, with one on each side of the helicopter hangar. The Type 517HA VHF radar mast is moved toward the stern of the ship. There are several mounting sites for a new single barrel 30 mm stealthy gun mount that is fully automated. The addition of this small caliber weapon is presumably for the need to counter non-conventional threats such as potential terrorist attacks and anti-piracy operations, but as of the end of 2012, no 30 mm gun mounts have been observed to be installed on the hull yet.
052D型的布局类似于之前的052C型,但052D型的上层建筑以更大的角度向内倾斜,达到减少雷达横截面。052D型直升机机库移动到中心,而不是像052C型上的在左侧。
在直升机机库的两侧,增加类似054A型护卫舰上的一对封闭的船筏下水系统。517HA型米波雷达桅杆朝舰的尾部移位。这专用的安装位置用于新的单管30毫米隐身炮安装它是全自动的。增加这个小口径武器大概是有必要打击非传统威胁,如可能的恐怖袭击和反海盗行动,但截至2012年年底,没有观察到30毫米舰炮安装到舰体上。


A pair of enclosed boat/raft launching systems similar to that of the Type 054A frigate is added, with one on each side of the helicopter hangar. 
在直升机机库的两侧,增加类似054A型护卫舰上的一对封闭的船筏下水系统
 
Due to the greater angle of superstructure slope, more space was made available for the active phased array radar (APAR), which first appeared in June 2012 onboard PLAN weaponry trial ship Bi Sheng.[6] It is believed that this new APAR is a development of Type 348 Radar mounted on the Type 052C. One of the main differences is that the size of the new array is larger, so presumably there are more transceivers on each array. Another obvious difference is that the curvature resulted in the need for air circulation on earlier APAR on Type 052C is gone, so it is believed that the new APAR on Type 052D must have adopted a pure liquid cooling system instead of the mixed air and liquid cooling system on earlier APAR on board Type 052C.
由于上部建筑边坡倾角较大,更多的空间被用于有源相控阵雷达(APAR),这在2012年6月第一次出现装配在中国海军(PLAN)毕升号武器试验船上。可以认为,这种新的有源相控阵雷达(APAR)是安装在052C型上348型雷达的发展。其中一个主要的差别是,新的阵列的尺寸较大,所以推测每个阵列上更多的收发器。另一个明显的不同之处在于在较早052C型APAR上需要空气流通的弯曲形外罩消失了,因此它被认为052D型上新APAR系统必然采用了纯液体冷却系统,而不是在早期052C型上APAR采用的混合空气和液体冷却系统。
 
 
Vertical Launching System
垂直发射系统
 
The Type 052D has a brand new vertical launching system (VLS) for surface-to-air missiles, cruise missiles, anti-submarine missiles, and anti-ship missiles, and is capable of quad-packing missiles and cold launch; it is the third type of Chinese VLS system identified, after the circular version of VLS on Type 052C destroyer and the rectangular version on Type 054A frigate.[8] The VLS system on Type 052D differs from that on Type 052C. The circular-shaped VLS system on Type 052C is replaced by the VLS with rectangular cells on Type 052D.[9] Moreover, this box-like VLS looks different from the VLS system of Type 054A.[10] Photos show that Type 052D's VLS system does not contain the shared exhaust vents between the rows of launching tubes,[11] which is the common feature of Type 054A's VLS.[12] Instead, the VLS on Type 052D looks more similar to the American Mk 41 VLS, but without obvious indication of exhausts. The lack of exhaust vents in the leaked photos leads to some Chinese internet forums postulating the cold launch method is adopted on Type 052D, but such claims cannot be confirmed by independent or official sources.
052D型装有舰对空导弹,巡航导弹,反潜导弹和反舰导弹一个全新的垂直发射系统(VLS),并能够四种-装填导弹和冷发射;它确定是第三类中国VLS系统,在052C型导弹驱逐舰VLS的圆筒形版本和054A型护卫舰箱形版本之后。052D型VLS系统不同于052C型。在052C型的圆筒形VLS系统由052D型VLS箱形单元替换。此外,这种箱形VLS看起来与054A型的VLS系统不同。一张照片显示,052D型的VLS系统不包含发射管行之间共用的排焰道,这是054A型VLS的共同特征。相反,052D型VLS看起来更类似于美国的Mk 41 VLS,但没有排焰道的明显迹象。在泄露的照片中排焰道的缺乏导致了一些中国互联网论坛假设在052D型采用冷发射方法,但这种说法不能由独立的或官方的消息证实。

 
Other sources on Chinese internet forums state that the difference between the VLS on Type 052D and VLS on Type 054A is simply a rearrangement of exhaust to a different location and Type 052D is still utilizing the hot launch method like Type 054A, but used a more advanced method of concentric canister launch (CCL) system (同心筒式垂直发射系统),[13] first pioneered by USA in the mid-1990 for Mk 41 VLS upgrade. This second claim appears more probable than the cold launch claims, because official Chinese sources have confirmed the existence of CCL VLS developmental program headed by the School of Mechatronics Engineering of Beijing Institute of Technology, and various research papers have been publicized, such as the effect of the flow mechanism and annular size of CCL and others.[14][15] It is reported that chief designers of Chinese CCL VLS included Professor Yuan Zenfeng (袁曾凤), Professor Miao Peiyun (苗佩云) and professor Liang Shijie (梁世杰). When using CCL method, the flame produced in hot launch is diverted through the space between the inner and outer canisters within each individual VLS cell, so no specially dedicated exhaust shared by several cells are needed, thus similar to how British vertical launched (VL) Sea Wolf missile operates,[16] and this is why CCL VLS can be mistaken for cold launch due to the lack of dedicated exhaust sandwiched between two rolls of cells in traditional VLS, while in reality, the exhaust of CCL VLS is within each individual cell.
在中国互联网论坛的其他消息来源称,在052D型VLS和054A型VLS之间的差异仅仅是排焰道重新安排到不同位置并且052D型依旧采用类似054A型的热发射方法,但采用了更先进的同心筒发射(CCL)系统(同心筒式垂直发射系统),首先由美国在1990年中期率先用于Mk 41 VLS升级。这第二种断言似乎比冷发射断言更可能,因为中国官方消息来源证实CCL VLS发展计划由北京理工大学带领,各种研究论文已公布,如流动机理和CCL环形尺寸和其他等。据报道,中国CCL VLS的首席设计师包括 Yuan Zenfeng(袁曾凤)教授,Miao Peiyun(苗佩云)教授和Liang Shijie(梁世杰)教授 。当使用CCL方法,在热启动产生的火焰是通过每个单独VLS单元内的内部和外部筒之间的空间排掉,因此需要由几个组块共享没有特殊的专用排焰道,从而类似于英国垂直发射(VL)海狼导弹操作,这就是为什么CCL VLS会被误认为冷发射,由于缺乏夹在传统的两个旋转VLS单元之间的专用排焰道,而在现实中,CCL VLS排气是在每个单元内。
 
What is also confirmed by semi-official sources in China is that the VLS on Type 052D is built to GJB 5860-2006 standard (GJB = Guo-jia Jun-yong Biao-zhun, 国家军用标准, "National Military Standard"),[17] so that different types of missiles can be launched by a single launching system.[18] According to some of the publicized examples of GJB 5860-2006 requirement, there are 3 types of VLS that differs in length: 9 meter, 7 meter and 3.3 meter respectively (section 5.1.3), but the diameter is same for all, 850 mm maximum (section 6.1.2), with each launching tube filled with either dry air or nitrogen inside (section 6.1.4), and with higher internal pressure. (section 6.1.4). Similar to U.S. Navy's MK 41, a launching module includes 8 launching tubes (section 5.2.4), and each tube can house 1~4 missiles (section 5.2.4). Each launching model has a launching control unit (section 5.3.7), which can simultaneously launch up to 4 missiles of different kind (section 5.3.6). The launching control unit must have built-in test/diagnostic function (section 5.3.8). These publicized portions of GJB 5860-2006 are surprisingly similar to that of Mk 41 VLS,[19] which prompt some Chinese internet sources to claim that there are potential future export of such system so that it has to comply to Mk 41 VLS, the most widely used VLS in the world.
就在中国的半官方消息来源证实,在052D型VLS的是建立在GJB 5860-2006标准(GJB =Guo-jia Jun-yong Biao-zhun,“国家军用标准”),使不同类型的导弹可以由单个发射系统发射。根据一些GJB 5860-2006要求公开的例子中,有3种类型长度不同的VLS:9米,7米和3.3米(第5.1.3节),但所有直径是相同的,最大850毫米(第6.1.2节),每个发射管填充有干燥空气或氮气任一在里面(第6.1.4节),并具有更高的内部压力(第6.1.4节)。类似美国海军的MK 41,发射模块包括8个发射管(第5.2.4节),每管可容纳1〜4枚导弹(第5.2.4节)。每一种发射模式有一个发射控制单元(第5.3.7节),可以同时发射多达4枚不同类型导弹(第5.3.6节)。发射控制单元必须具有内置的测试/诊断功能(第5.3.8节)。 GJB 5860-2006的这些公开的部分都与Mk 41 VLS惊人相似,促使一些中国互联网人士声称有此类具有符合MK 41 VLS的系统未来有出口潜力,这是世界上最广泛使用的。
 
Guns
舰炮

 
Another improvement of the Type 052D is that the Type H/PJ87 100mm gun on the Type 052C is replaced by a new single barrel 130 mm gun, designated as the Type H/PJ38 CIWS.
052D型舰炮的另一个改进是在052C型上的H/PJ87型100毫米舰炮是由一座新的单管130毫米舰炮替换,命名为H/PJ38 CIWS。
 
Based on photos, Type 052D destroyers starting with the 9th hull will be fitted with the H/PJ-11 CIWS instead of the previous smaller H/PJ-12 currently fitted on existing hulls. Compared to the seven-barreled H/PJ-12, the H/PJ-11 is an eleven-barreled 30 mm CIWS (export designation Type 1130) that was so far exclusively fitted on the Liaoning aircraft carrier and the latest few Type 054A frigates. According to local media, it can fire up to 10,000 rpm and intercept incoming anti-ship missiles up to a speed of Mach 4 with a 96% success rate.
根据照片,052D型驱逐舰第九艘舰体将配备H/PJ-11 CIWS而不是以前安装在现有舰体上较小的H/PJ-12型。相比七管装H/PJ-12型,H/PJ-11型是一种十一管装30毫米CIWS(出口名称1130型),这迄今为止只安装在辽宁号航母和最新的一些054A型护卫舰上。据当地媒体报道,它可以发射高达10,000发/分钟,拦截来袭可达4马赫速度反舰导弹具有96%的成功率。
 
Data Link
数据链
 
Sources on the Chinese Internet have stated that Type 052D is equipped with a newest Chinese data link which has just completed national certification in Jun 2012 and publicized by the end of year.[22] Designated as JSIDLS (Joint Service Integrated Data Link System, 全军综合数据链系统), this is the Chinese equivalent of Link 16,[23] a significant improvement of earlier HN-900 which is the Chinese equivalent of Link 11/TADIL-A[24] installed on Type 052C. The general designer of JSIDLS is Major General Wang Jianxi (王建新), who was the also head of the research institute of the People's Liberation Army General Staff Department assigned as primary contractor of JSIDLS. More than 300 establishments and 8000 people were involved in the development of JSIDLS, and it won State Science and Technology Prizes after completion.
在中国互联网上的消息人士称,052D型配备了2012年6月刚刚完成了国家认证并在年底公布的一个最新的中国数据链。指定为JSIDLS(联合服务综合数据链系统,全军综合数据链系统),这是中国的与Link 16相当,比安装在052C型上早期的HN-900相当于Link 11/ TADIL-A有显著的改进。 JSIDLS的总设计师是Wang Jianxi (王建新)少将,也是指定为JSIDLS的主要承包商解放军总参谋部研究院的领导者。超过300个机构和8000人参与了JSIDLS的发展,它研制成后荣获国家科学技术奖励。
 
China's Aegis
中国的宙斯盾
 
China's state-run media informally designate the Type 052D as Zhonghuashendun / 中华神盾 which means "of and referring to China" and God-Shield. The new destroyer is equipped with a flat-array AESA radar, a 64-cell VLS and modern long-range anti-air missiles. The destroyer is expected to have capabilities similar to those of U.S. Arleigh Burke-class destroyers.
中国官方媒体非正式指定052D型为Zhonghuashendun/中华神盾,这意思是“指的是中国”的神盾。新的驱逐舰都配备了平面阵列AESA雷达,64单元VLS和现代化远程防空导弹。驱逐舰预计将有类似于美国阿利·伯克级驱逐舰的能力。
 
There is speculation that the radar systems on Type 052D destroyers are able to detect stealth fighter aircraft, particularly the American F-35 Lightning II, especially if the Type 346A radar is an S-band radar like the American SPY-1 radar. Tactical stealth fighters are optimized to be undetectable from higher-frequency radar bands such the C, X, and Ku, but features like the tail-fin may make it susceptible to lower S or L-band frequencies. Depending on the distance between the ship and aircraft and the strength of the return of the omni-directional signal, a target may not be picked up at a tactically significant distance since L-band and most S-bands have resolution cells that cannot generate quality targets for weapons tracking. However, the SPY-1 and Air and Missile Defense Radar operate in higher frequency portions of the S-band and are able to generate weapons quality tracks, so Chinese systems could be similar. China is also speculated to be reducing the size of the large radar resolution cells by connecting multiple low-frequency radars through high-speed data-networks, which can refine resolution enough for tracking a missile to the target.
有人猜测,052D型驱逐舰的雷达系统能够探测隐形战斗机,尤其是美国的F-35闪电II型,尤其是假如346A型雷达是一种S波段雷达像美国SPY-1型雷达。战术隐形战斗机被优化为从高频雷达波段例如在C,X,和Ku波段上检测不到,但是信号特征像尾翼可能使其易受到较低S或L波段的频率的影响。根据船舶和飞机和全方位信号返回强度之间的距离,一个目标从L波段可能无法捕获一个战术有效距离和大多数S波段分辨单元不能生成质量目标用于武器跟踪。然而,SPY-1空中和导弹防御雷达工作在S波段频率较高的部分,能够产生武器质量的跟踪,所以中国的系统应该是相似的。中国也被推测是减少大型雷达分辨单元的大小,通过连接多个低频雷达,通过高速数据网络,这可以改善分辨率足够的跟踪一枚导弹到目标。

Missions
任务
 
       ? Long range, area air defense
       ? ASW, AAW, ASUW, EW 
       ? Strike against land targets 
       ? Long range patrol and surveillance
       ? Escort of high value assets such as Aircraft Carrier and Amphibious Vessels
       ?远程,区域防空
       ?ASW,AAW,ASUW,EW
       ?对陆上目标打击
       ?远距离巡逻和监视
       ?高价值资产,如航母护航和两栖舰艇 
 
Design
设计

        Same general layout as Type 052C, with slightly larger and higher bridge which explains the larger displacement of Type 052D despite the two types almost share the same hull. Type 052D features an improved stealth design compared to its predecesor.
        同052C型相同的常规布局,并且稍大,更高舰桥,它解释了052D型的大排水量,尽管这两种型号的几乎共享相同的船体。 052D型的特点相比其前任改进的隐身设计。

Weapons
武器

 
        Guns:
            ? 1x H/PJ-38 130mm main gun 
            ? 1x H/PJ-12 30mm CIWS
        Missiles:
            A total of 64 Vertical Launch System (VLS) cells:
            ? 32x fore (behind the main gun)
            ? 32x aft (ahead of the helicopter hangar)
        舰炮:
            ? 1xH/PJ-38型130毫米主炮
            ? 1xH/PJ-12型30毫米CIWS
        导弹:
            共有64组垂直发射系统(VLS)单元:
            ? 32x前部(主炮后面)
            ? 32x后部(直升机机库前面)
 
        To launch: 
             - HHQ-9B long range Surface to Air Missile
             - YJ-18A supersonice Anti-Ship Missile
             - ASROC (Anti-Submarine ROCket) CY-2 carrying Yu-8 torpedo
             ? 1x Type 710.SJ01-24 launcher with 24x HQ10
         发射:
             - HHQ-9B远程地空导弹
             - YJ-18A 超音速反舰导弹
             - ASROC(反潜火箭)CY-2携带Yu-8鱼雷
             ?  1x710.SJ01-24型发射器连同24xHQ10
 
         Torpedoes:
              ? 2x Type 7424B Triple torpedo launchers 324mm (for Yu-7 Torpedoes)
              Sensors, Electronics, Decoys
         鱼雷:
              ?  2x7424B型三管鱼雷发射324毫米(Yu-7鱼雷)
              传感器,电子,诱饵
 
         Combat Management and Information Systems:
               n/a
         战斗管理与信息系统:
               N / A
 
          Optronics:
               Type IR-17 
           光电:
               IR-17型

         Radars and Sensors:
               4x Type 346A phased array radar
               1x Type 364 air search radar
               1x Type 366 radar
               1x Type 517H air search radar
               1x Type 760 navigation radar
               1x Type 349A fire control radar
               1x Type 754 helicopter control and approach radar
               1x MGK-335MS-E hull sonar
               1x towed array sonar (TAS)
               1x variable depth sonar (VDS)
          雷达和传感器:
               4x346A型相控阵雷达
               1x364型对空搜索雷达
               1x366型雷达
               1x517H型对空搜索雷达
               1x760型导航雷达
               1x349A型火控雷达
               1x754型直升机的控制和进场雷达
               1xMGK-335MS-E壳体声纳
               1x拖曳阵声纳(TAS)
               1x可变深度声纳(VDS)
           Decoys/Counter measures/Jammers:
               2x H/RJZ-726 EW Jammers
               4x Type 726-4A decoy launchers (18 rockets each)
           诱饵/对策/干扰器:
               2xH/RJZ-726电子战干扰器
               4x726-4A型诱饵发射器(每个18枚火箭)
 
           Communications:
               SITN240 SATCOM system
               JSIDLS (Joint Service Integrated Data Link System) 
           通讯:
               SITN240卫星通信系统
               JSIDLS(联合服务综合数据链系统)
 
           Engines/Propulsion/Power
                Propulsion type: CODOG (Combined diesel or gas)
                Gas turbines: 2x QC280
                Diesel engines: 2x MTU-20 V956 TB92
                2x Propeller Shafts
           发动机/推进/动力
                推进类型:CODOG(联合柴油或汽油)
                燃气轮机:2xQC280
                柴油发动机:2xMTU-20 V956 TB92
                2x螺旋桨轴

Type[类型]
DDG (Guided Missile Destroyer)[导弹驱逐舰]
Crew[乘员]
280
Operators[操作]
Chinese Navy (PLAN)[中国人民解放军海军]
Performance[性能]
Speeds: 30+ kts (max)[航速:30+节(最大)]
Range: 5,000 nm @ 18 knots[航程:5,000海里@18节]
Endurance: n/a[续航力:N/A]
Designer / Builder[设计/建造]
Changxingdao-Jiangnan Shipyard (JNCX) & DSIC
[长兴岛-江南造船厂(JNCX) & 大连造船工业公司(DSIC)]
Displacement[排水量]
7,500 tons (full load)[7,500吨(满载)]
Aviation[舰载机]
1 light/medium helicopter (Z-9C or KA-27)
1 轻型/中型 直升飞机(Z-9C 或 KA-27)]
Dimensions[尺寸]
Length: 155 m[长度:155米]
Beam: 18 m[艇宽:18米]
Maximum Draft: 6.5 m[最大吃水:6.5米]

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